Poverty, inequality and social welfare in Australia
Poverty, inequality and social welfare are defined in this book. Previous poverty studies are surveyed and a new index of poverty is developed based on everyday meanings, and stressing the individual and relative nature of poverty. Previous definitions of inequality and welfare are described and the relations between them and poverty are explored. New estimates of poverty are made for Australia. Conclusions are derived from comparisons between measured levels of poverty over time and across family types. Previous Australian studies of inequality and welfare are surveyed and new estimates are made for Australia for recent years.
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INTRODUCTION AND OUTLINE
UNITS OF ANALYSIS
APPROACHES TO THE MEASUREMENT OF POVERTY
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adults aggregate analysis average income shortfall benchmark poverty line calculated capability approach capita changes in poverty chapter characteristics column comparison consumption couples decomposed decomposition defined definition dependents deprivation weighted poverty deps described distribution of poor economic entropy index equation equivalent income estimates expenditure family types generalised Lorenz Gini coefficient Gini index groups head-count index included income distribution income effect income gap index income quintile income unit types index of inequality index of poverty individual inequality and social inequality aversion Kakwani level of poverty Lorenz curve married couples mean income measure poverty measures of inequality measures of poverty measures of welfare method national accounts non-working percentage period poor income units population poverty measurement proportion of poor real GDP reference person relative revealed preference single parent single persons social welfare social welfare function standard of living survey Table unit records updating index weighted poverty index welfare function