Practical geostatistics: modeling and spatial analysis. Manual

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Springer Science & Business Media, Jun 8, 2000 - Mathematics - 159 pages
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In practice, application of geostatistical theory requires an integrated toolbox of statistical, geostatistical, spatial analysis and visualization techniques. This approach to the application of geostatistics for subsurface characterization is the focus of Practical Geostatistics, from a description of the data structures required, through discussion of the concepts, theory and application, to qualification of the end results. The linked, hypertext document structure facilitates the integration of theoretical discussion with detailed worked examples and numerous color images of computer visualization. It also allows multi-level progression through Practical Geostatistics at an overview, theoretical, application or interactive review level, with numerous links between. The document structure facilitates access to Practical Geostatistics through standard Internet browser technology on any computer platform.
 

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Contents

Why Geostatistics? The Requirement for Spatially Related Statistics
1
Subsurface Variables
4
Geological Discontinuities
5
Origins in the Prediction of Gold Grades for Mining
7
Applications in the Geosciences
9
Integrated Computer Techniques
10
Characterization Quality Concerns
11
Advantages and Disadvantages of Geostatistics
13
Estimation with Anisotropic Spatial Variability
89
Volume Estimation of a Regionalized Variable
91
The Normal Distribution Standard Error and Probability
93
Spatial Variation of Uncertainty
95
Standard Error as a Measure of Estimation Uncertainty
97
Geological Estimation and Uncertainty
100
Sampling Control Applications in Geostatistics
102
Sampling Control with Estimation Uncertainty
103

Disadvantages of Geostatistics
14
Data Types Variables Characteristics and 3D Conventions
16
Data Types
17
Hole Data Structure for Borehole Samples and Observations
21
Hole Data Associations
22
Map Data Structure for Point Survey and Map Information
24
Map Data Associations
26
Volume Data Structure for Geological Structures and Stratigraphy
27
Volume Geometry
28
Volume Data Associations
29
Grid Data Structure for a Continuous Measure of a Regionalized Variable
31
3D Grid Data Associations
32
Analysis of the Spatial Variability of a Regionalized Variable
34
Measurement of Spatial Variability
36
Derivation of a Mathematical Model of Spatial Variability
41
Understanding Geostatistical SemiVariograms
42
SemiVariogram Models
43
Geostatistical Estimation of a Regionalized Variable
45
Sample Selection Criteria for Geostatistical Estimation
47
Estimating a Continuous Measure of a Regionalized Variable
48
CrossValidation and Other Checks on Geostatistical Estimation
52
CrossChecking of the Results of Geostatistical Estimation
53
Common Problems in Geostatistical Estimation
55
Analysis of Geological Influences in a Regionalized Variable
57
Estimation with Geological Influences
59
3D Interpretation of Geological Structures and Volumes
60
3D Interpolation of Geological Volumes
62
Generating Viewplane Sections Through Geological Volumes
63
Considerations for 3D Interpretation
65
Generation of Geological Volumes between Triangulated Surfaces
66
TIN Representation of a Geological Surface
67
Manipulation of TIN Surfaces
69
Derivation of Volumes from TIN Surfaces
70
Geostatistical Estimation with Geological Control
72
Geostatistical Estimation with Geological Control
73
Grid Data Structure Considerations
75
Alternative Approaches to Representation of Geology
77
Data Transforms for NonNormal Sample Distributions
80
Log Transform
81
Indicator Transform
82
Rank Order Transform
83
Normal Scores Transform
84
Underlying Trends and Estimation of Residual Values
86
Estimation with a Determinate Trend
87
Anisotropy and Estimation with Directional Control
88
Indicator Transforms and Probability Estimation
106
Qualitative Approach
108
Other Techniques for Estimation of a Regionalized Variable
111
Conditional Simulation
112
Direct Volume Estimation for Thin Seams
113
Volumetrics Analysis of a Regionalized Variable
115
Manipulation of the Results of Geostatistical Estimation
119
Combining Two or More Estimated Variations
120
Generation of a Net Value Variation
122
Direct Volume Estimation of a Regionalized Variable
124
Theoretical Basis of Direct Volume Estimation
125
Practical Application of Direct Volume Estimation
126
Advantages of Direct Volume Estimation
127
Data Integration Issues
128
Data Capture Formats
129
Data Verification Techniques
131
Statistical Techniques
132
Geostatistical Techniques
133
Visualization Techniques
134
Qualification of the Results of Subsurface Characterization
135
Estimation Comparisons
136
Estimation Uncertainty
137
Characterization Reporting
139
Worked Example Grade Characterization of a Zinc Ore Deposit
140
Data Review Statistics Semi Variogram Analysis of Samples
141
Unconfined Geostatistical Estimation of Ore Grades
142
Ore Grade Estimation with Geological Control
143
Spatial Analysis of Ore Grade Variation
144
Environmental Characterization and Assessment of Soil Contamination
145
Data Review Statistics and Geostatistical Analysis
146
Probability Estimation of Contaminant Variations
147
Spatial Analysis and Volumetrics
148
Sample Optimization and Quality Control
149
Mineral Characterization of a Copper Ore Deposit
150
Site Investigation
151
Data Review Statistics SemiVariogram Analysis of Samples
152
Ore Grade Estimation with Geological Control
153
Spatial Analysis of Ore Grade Variation
154
Geotechnical Characterization for a Tunnel Project
155
Data Review Statistics SemiVariogram Analysis of Samples
156
Probability Estimation of Soil Properties
157
Probability Estimation of Rock Properties
158
Source Data for the Worked Examples
159
Credits
160
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