Principles of Lithography
Lithography is a field in which advances proceed at a swift pace. This book was written to address several needs, and the revisions for the second edition were made with those original objectives in mind. Many new topics have been included in this text commensurate with the progress that has taken place during the past few years, and several subjects are discussed in more detail. This book is intended to serve as an introduction to the science of microlithography for people who are unfamiliar with the subject. Topics directly related to the tools used to manufacture integrated circuits are addressed in depth, including such topics as overlay, the stages of exposure, tools, and light sources. This text also contains numerous references for students who want to investigate particular topics in more detail, and they provide the experienced lithographer with lists of references by topic as well. It is expected that the reader of this book will have a foundation in basic physics and chemistry. No topics will require knowledge of mathematics beyond elementary calculus.
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Overview of lithography
Optical pattern formation
Modeling and thin film effects
Wafer steppers 139
Masks and reticles
Confronting the diffraction limit
Other editions - View all
aberrations aerial image alignment marks alignment system angle antireflection coatings bandwidth best focus catadioptric chemically amplified resists cost defocus depth-of-focus diffraction edge effects electron beam etch EUV lithography excimer laser exposed exposure field exposure tools Figure fused silica i-line immersion lithography index of refraction intrafield layer lens elements lens reduction lenses light sources lines linewidth control materials metrology Micrascan microlithography multilayer numerical aperture off-axis illumination ofSPIE optical lithography optical proximity corrections overlay errors overlay measurement parameters partial coherence pattern pellicle phase phase-shifting mask photoacid photolithography photomasks photoresist plane position post-exposure bake problem Proceedings of SPIE produced profiles projection optics reduce reflectance resist film resist process resist thickness resolution reticle scanning semiconductor shown in Fig silicon spin coating step-and-repeat step-and-scan systems substrate surface Technol temperature throughput topography typically variations wafer stage wafer steppers wavelength x-ray lithography
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