Principles of Political Economy

Front Cover
D. Appleton, 1885 - Economics - 658 pages
 

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Contents

Fundamental Propositions respecting Capital
74
Effects of defraying government expenditure by loans
83
Fixed and Circulating Capital what
93
Of Causes affecting the Efficiency of Production
99
4 Froduction on a large and production on a small scale
108
Movement of Population Center westward
116
Means for saving in the surplus above necessaries 1
122
Receipts Expenses and Profits of all Railways in the State of New York 187
128
Miles of Railroad in Operation and Miles added each Year in the United States
129
The law of production from the soil a law of diminishinp return
130
Proportion of Miles of Railroad to the Square Mile in the United States and Europe face
140
Antagonist principle to the law of diminishing return the progress
143
PAGE
144
BOOK II
152
The case for Communism against private property presented
158
Of various minor schemes Communistic and Socialistic
165
6 Property in land different from property in movables
171
The Wagesfund and the objections to it considered 177
183
Due restriction of population the only safeguard of a laboringclass
190
would require as a condition legal measures for repression of popu
196
Twofold means of elevating the habits of the laboringpeople by edu
202
different employments
205
Wages of women why lower than those of men
213
General tendency of profits to an equality
220
The rato of profit depends on the Cost of Labor
226
Of Rent
232
Opposing views to the law of rent
240
Miscellaneous cases falling under this law
257
Of Labor the principal element in Cost of Production 204
266
Occasional elements in Cost of Production taxes and groundrent
275
Rent of mines and fisheries and groundrent of buildings and cases
281
Gold and Silver why fitted for those purposes
290
together with the rapidity of circulation
297
2 which is determined by the cost of production
303
This law how related to the principle laid down in the preceding
309
The use of the two metals as money and the management of Subsidi
315
Production of Gold and Silver 807
319
Of Credit as a Substitute for Money
325
Promissory notes
331
Great extensions and contractions of credit Phenomena of a com
338
What determines the value of an inconvertible paper money?
344
If regulated by the price of bullion an inconvertible currency might
350
Experiments with paper money in the United States
355
Exports and Imports of Specie from and into tho United States
408
Money passes from country to country as a medium of exchange
410
Of the Distribution of the Precious Metals through
418
The precious metals as money are of the same value and distribute
426
Effect of the increase of an inconvertible paper currency Kcal
437
Circumstances which determine the fluctuations
444
Market
450
Low wages enable a country to undersell another when peculiar
457
Cotton Crops under Free and Slave Labor
459
Low profits as affecting the carrying trade
468
Influence of the Progress of Industry and Population
475
that tendency from time to time counteracted by improvements
484
3 in railways 136
491
Changes in the Rank of the States in respect of Population
495
Different theories as to the fall of profits
497
prevented from reaching it by commercial revulsioni
504
Grain Crops of the United States
509
7 by the emigration of capital
510
In opulent countries the extension of machinery not detrimental
512
The possibility of improvement while laborers remain merely receivers
517
2 through small holdings by which the landlords gain is shared
522
Industrial Partnership
529
BOOK V
537
The increase of the rent of land from natural causes a fit subject
546
on wages
553
Of Taxes on Commodities or Indirect Taxes
562
how modified by the tendency of profits to a minimum
568
Effects produced on international exchange by duties on exports
574
Comparison between Direct and Indirect Taxation
583
8
590
Definitions of Value in Use Exchange Value and Price
594
Of a National Debt
596
In what cases desirable to maintain a surplus revenue for the redemp
602
Reduction of National Debts in Various Countries
604
Of an Interference of Government grounded on Erro
605
on the ground of encouraging young industries colonial policy
612
Occupations of People of the United States
619
on the ground of creating a diversity of industries
621
Appendix I
631
Examination Questions
637
252
654
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