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20 units actual afforded amount analyses anthracite average Belgium Bessemer blast furnace Britain burnt calcined calories carbon as carbonic carbonic acid cent charcoal charge cinder Clarence Cleveland coal coke collieries combustion compared composition considerable consumed consumption contained converter cost cubic feet cwts difference district Durham earnings employed England escaping gases estimated experience favour figures fixed carbon forge fuel Germany given hearth heat evolved hematite hot blast hydrogen increase Iron and Steel iron trade ironstone labour less lime limestone malleable iron manganese manufacture materials matter metallic iron metalloids Middlesbrough mineral mines nitrogen obtained oxide of iron oxygen paid phosphorus pig iron present produced puddling furnace quantity of carbon railway rates raw coal reduced referred silica silicon slag smelting steel rails Sulphur temperature tons Total tuyeres unit of carbon unit of coke United Kingdom units of iron wages weight
Page 39 - The very nature of the smelting process secures the exercise of an economy, in this respect, for which it would be difficult to find a parallel in the entire range of manufacturing operations.
Page 99 - It is during childhood, however, that the greatest successes of physical culture are to be noted, and it is not difficult to understand why this should be the case.
Page 64 - Practically therefore the combustion of a unit of carbon burnt to carbonic oxide in a blast furnace of 80 feet gives nearly as good an effective result, although it evolves only 2,400 calories, as the same quantity of carbon burnt to carbonic acid in a low fire although in the latter case 8,000 calories per unit of carbon are generated. There is however this marked difference between the two examples, that whereas ' Certain disturbing influences must be taken into the account, but they need not be...
Page 474 - Bread, therefore, such as is now given to the inmates of a workhouse, was then seldom seen, even on the trencher of a yeoman or of a shopkeeper. The great majority of the nation lived almost entirely on rye, barley, and oats.
Page 579 - The language of the report just referred to would indicate that some considerable advance has already been made in the direction in question. Eecently my attention has been drawn to a confirmatory opinion expressed by no less an authority than my friend the Hon. Abram S. Hewitt, of New York. Speaking of Alabama he says:—" It is in fact the only place upon the American Continent where it is possible to make iron in competition with the...
Page 65 - Certain disturbing influences must be taken into the account, but they need not be considered at the present moment. the 7,992 heat units referred to in the case of the blast furnace are almost all usefully employed, a very large proportion of the 8,000 evolved in the low hearth escapes into the air unutilized. In the low fire, as experience tells us, there is an enormous waste of heat, which is indeed visible in the flame and incandescence at the surface of the fuel. On the other hand, in a blast...
Page 313 - Gartsherrie coal, containing 7*77 per cent, of moisture and fully as much oxygen as the Durham coal, it follows, irrespective of any water formed by the action of hydrogen as a reducing agent, that a good deal must escape condensation in the apparatus used for collecting the tar and ammonia. In the Gartsherrie coal hydrogen exists to the extent of 5 per cent, of the weight of the coal ; equal therefore to 2 cwts. for every ton of pig iron made. Assuming each ton of metal to contain 18'6 ewte.
Page 82 - ... resembled each other in the three localities. In the last Section attention was drawn to the importance of having the reduction of the ore effected by carbonic oxide, for reasons which need not be repeated; and it was shown how this end was promoted by the use of enlarged furnaces. Let us now take the case of two furnaces of equal capacity, each fed with a different kind of ironstone, and driven at exactly the same speed. If both varieties of ore lost their oxygen at the same rate, reduction...
Page 91 - The fuel used in heating the blast is the gas which escapes from the furnace, which in many, indeed in most, cases would be wasted; but may at the best be valued as small coal, which in the North of England can be had for threepence per cwt. If then by burning two cwts. of coal worth sixpence, or, still better, by burning furnace gas costing nothing, three cwts. of coke, worth it may be two shillings, could be saved, a great gain would arise from such a change.