Principles of Toxicology Testing

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CRC Press, Jul 23, 2007 - Medical - 336 pages
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The evolution of toxicology testing finds its impetus in the continuing growth of the chemical and pharmaceutical industries, as well as the awareness of public health initiatives, needs, and responses that demand faster, more accurate, more economical methods for screening potential toxicity. Concurrent advances in biotechnology enable viable in vitro systems to compliment traditional animal toxicology testing methods. Today, both methods are often employed together in toxicological analysis, derivation of toxicity mechanisms, and pre-clinical drug development.

Principles of Toxicology Testing juxtaposes the principles of animal toxicology testing with in vitro alternative methods to highlight the importance of each for interpretation of the significance and relevance of the other. Divided into three parts, the book emphasizes the universal applications of the field as a science rather than the particular steps of laboratory technique. The first part introduces the fundamentals of the toxicology, toxicokinetics, and human risk assessment. The second part details toxicology testing in animals and describes acute, subchronic, and chronic studies as well as testing for mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. Focusing on study design and determination of classical indicators, it covers short and long term methodologies including dermal, ocular, and reproductive. Presenting the advantages and disadvantages of each method, part three introduces in vitro alternative testing such as cell cultures, cellular methods for acute systemic toxicity, as well as target organ and local toxicity. The author also considers contemporary issues such as chemical exposure, high throughput screening, and the efforts of US and E.U. regulatory agencies to standardize and validate in vitro techniques.

By bringing traditional and alternative testing methods into a single volume, Principles of Toxicology Testing challenges you to interpret the significance of toxicology testing results and construct a logical approach toward the ultimate purpose of testing.
 

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Contents

Chapter 1 Introduction to Principles of Toxicology
3
Chapter 2 Effects of Chemicals
11
Chapter 3 Toxicokinetics
27
Chapter 4 Risk Assessment and Regulatory Toxicology
45
Chapter 5 Descriptive Animal Toxicology Tests
57
Toxicology Testing In Vivo
71
Chapter 6 Acute Toxicology Testing
73
Chapter 7 Subchronic and Chronic Toxicology Testing
89
Chapter 12 Cell Culture Methodology
151
Chapter 13 Cell Culture Methods for Acute Toxicology Testing
175
Chapter 14 Toxicokinetic Studies
203
Chapter 15 Mutagenicity Testing In Vitro
209
Chapter 16 Reproductive and Teratogenicity Studies In Vitro
229
Chapter 17 High Throughput Screening and Microarray Analysis
237
Chapter 18 Experimental Design and Statistics
245
Chapter 19 Standardization and Validation of Alternative Methods
259

Chapter 8 Acute Dermal and Ocular Toxicity Testing
101
Chapter 9 Toxicity Testing for Fertility and Reproduction
111
Chapter 10 Carcinogenicity and Mutagenicity Testing
131
Toxicology Testing In Vitro
145
Chapter 11 Introduction to In Vitro Toxicology Testing
147
Chapter 20 Applications of Alternative Models for Toxicology Testing
275
Index
291
Back cover
313
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