Private Funds, Public Purpose: Philanthropic Foundations in International Perspective

Front Cover
Helmut K. Anheier, Stefan Toepler
Springer Science & Business Media, Jan 31, 1999 - Business & Economics - 264 pages
Comparative information detailing the cultural, legal and historical environments of foundations in international settings has been scarce - until now. Written by scholars from six countries, this text covers philanthropic foundations in the world's busiest commercial centers - the U.S. and Eastern and Western Europe. It reports on the structures and mindsets that shape foundations' gift giving, and discusses different aspects of foundation management. Case studies of the French and Italian foundation communities and a comparative legal chapter are especially notable.
 

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Contents

Philanthropic Foundations An International Perspective
3
AN AMERICAN PHENOMENON?
6
SIZE
9
DEFINITIONS AND PREVAILING TYPES
11
THE FUNCTION AND OPERATION OF FOUNDATIONS
14
FOUNDATIONS AND THE STATE
17
OVERVIEW OF THE BOOK
19
NOTES
20
DEFINING FOUNDATION GOALS
158
OPERATIVE MANAGEMENT AND PROJECT MANAGEMENT
159
CONCLUSION
161
Operating in a Grantmaking World Reassessing the Role of Operating Foundations¹
163
WHY OPERATING FOUNDATIONS?
166
AN EMPIRICAL SKETCH
167
LEGAL DEFINITIONS AND REGULATION¹⁰
174
THE EXCLUSIONARY NATURE OF THE US TAX CLASSIFICATION
176

REFERENCES
21
Comparative Studies
25
The History of Foundations in the United Kingdom and the United States Philanthropic Foundations in Industrial Society
27
THE CONCEPT OF THE FOUNDATION AND ITS LEGAL STATUS
29
A GRADUAL EVOLUTION
30
PHILANTHROPIC FOUNDATIONS
36
POWER AND RESPONSIBILITY
40
THE INSTITUTIONALIZATION OF KNOWLEDGEBASED SOCIAL ENGINEERING BY PECULIAR INSTITUTIONS?
46
REFERENCES
50
A Comparative Legal Analysis of Foundations Aspects of Supervision and Transparency
55
COMMON LAW VERSUS CIVIL LAW
57
ESTABLISHMENT AND SUPERVISION OF FOUNDATIONS
59
PUBLIC DISCLOSURE
69
SANCTIONS AGAINST FOUNDATIONS ON REQUEST OF INTERESTED PARTIES
70
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
71
NOTES
74
REFERENCES
77
Foundations in Germany and the United States A Comparative Analysis
79
A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS
85
CONCLUDING REMARKS
112
NOTES
116
REFERENCES
117
Management and Organization
119
British Foundations The Organization and Management of Grantmaking
121
TRADITIONAL ROLES AND PRACTICES OF GRANTMAKING FOUNDATIONS
123
THE ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT OF GRANTMAKING
126
THE BUSINESS OF GRANTMAKING
129
CONCLUSION
136
REFERENCES
138
The Behavior of Grantmaking Foundations Toward a New Theoretical Frame
141
THE THREE MODELS DESCRIBED
142
THE MODELS ILLUSTRATED
146
EVALUATING THE MODELS
150
REFERENCES
153
Toward an Entrepreneurial Approach to Foundation Management
155
ENTREPRENEURIAL FOUNDATION MANAGEMENT
157
CONCLUSION
178
NOTES
180
Country Studies
183
Foundations in France
185
HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT
187
THE LEGAL POSITION
189
A PROFILE
191
RECENT TRENDS
194
NOTES
197
Foundations in Italy
199
LEGAL DEFINITION AND FISCAL TREATMENT
200
THE NONSPECIALIZED WORLD
205
THE NEW BANKING FOUNDATIONS
209
CONCLUSION
216
NOTES
217
Foundations in Germany and Their Revival in East Germany after 1989
219
THE GERMAN TRADITION OF FOUNDATIONS
221
FOUNDATIONS IN EAST GERMANY BETWEEN 1949 AND 1989
223
THE ROLE OF THE CHURCH
224
FOUNDATIONS AS INSTRUMENTS FOR SOLVING COMPLEX LEGAL SITUATIONS
225
EAST GERMANY AFTER 1989
227
REGULAR FOUNDATION ACTIVITIES INTRODUCED IN EAST GERMANY
229
THE SITUATION TODAY
231
REFERENCES
232
Rebuilding Civil Society in Eastern and Central Europe The Role Played by Foundations
235
STRENGTHENING CIVIL SOCIETY THROUGH THE NGO SECTOR
236
THE ROLE OF FOUNDATIONS
238
FOUNDATION PROGRAMS
240
LESSONS LEARNED
245
CONCLUSION
248
NOTES
249
REFERENCES
251
Conclusion
253
Why Study Foundations?
255
Index
261
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