Process Centrifugal Compressors: Basics, Function, Operation, Design, Application

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Springer Science & Business Media, Feb 9, 2004 - Science - 328 pages
3 Reviews
Throughout the last decades, centrifugal compressor research and development have been revolutionized. Computational fluid dynamics have provided a better understanding of the flow and physical phenomena, and the design of new cen trifugal compressor components has been transformed from an "art" into a "sci ence". New materials and manufacturing techniques now create new geometries that could only be dreamed of in the past, and new challenging applications have pushed the limits beyond what was considered the state of the art. This new book presenting a comprehensive look at industrial compressors is therefore very timely. Readers will find a large amount of information based on extensive experience, a clear and well-founded approach to real-gas handling and solutions to many practical problems. It will provide engineering contractors and users of industrial compressors with a better insight into the "how" and "why" of different design features thus allowing a more profound basis for discussions with manufacturers. It will also cast a light on the day-by-day design practice to academia by revealing the limitations and requirements of practical applications and economics. This book combines a strict mathematical approach with practical experience and is illustrated with many examples. It fills in the gap between academic text books and encyclopaedic descriptions of industrial compressors. I have no doubt that this book, based on several decades of experience in the industry, both in the USA and Europe, will be well received by the centrifugal compressor community.
 

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Excellent book about centrifugal compressors, theory explained and transformed to practical ways of understanding the basics of design, functions and operations.

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After reading almost all centrifugal compressor handbooks, I found this book which is one of the greatest one.

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Contents

Basic Compressor AeroThermodynamics
1
112 Turbocharger
2
115 Axial Compressor
5
117 Stationary Gas Turbine
6
12 Processes
8
13 Definitions and Terminology
12
132 Impeller Stage Section
13
14 Method of Presenting Equations
14
521 Variable Speed
126
522 Suction Throttling
128
523 Adjustable Inlet Guide Vanes
130
53 Performance Curves for Variable Conditions
133
54 In Search of an Invariant Performance Curve
134
55 PerformanceCurve Limits
140
552 Choke
148
553 Beyond Choke Expansion Mode in the Fourth Quadrant
151

15 The First Law of Thermodynamics
16
16 Reference Compression Processes
18
163 Work in Reference Processes
20
164 Application of Reference Work
25
17 The Euler Turbomachinery Equation
30
171 Change of State in the Mollier Diagram
32
18 Velocity Triangles
33
181 Inlet Triangles
35
19 Laws of Energy Transfer Summary of Inferences
36
110 Compressor Characteristics and their Significance
37
1102 Polytropic Head Coefficient
40
1105 Machine Mach Number Tip Speed Mach Number
41
1106 Machine Reynolds Number
43
1107 Specific Speed
44
Thermodynamics of Real Gases
47
21 Gas Thermodynamics
48
212 Summary of Formulae for Head and Discharge Temperature
54
22 RealGas Equations of State
58
221 BWRS Equation of State
59
222 RKS Equation of State
61
224 PR Equation of State
62
225 Computation of Isentropic Exponents
63
226 Recommendations for the Use of RealGas Equations
66
232 Absolute Water Content Humid Mass Volume Flow
67
233 Calculation of Saturation Pressure
68
References
69
Aero Components Function and Features
71
312 The Shrouded 2Dlmpeller
72
314 The SemiOpen Impeller
73
315 Impeller Family
74
316 Impeller Application
75
318 Impeller Stress Analysis
77
32 Inlet Duct
78
33 Adjustable Inlet Guide Vanes
79
34 Annular Diffuser
81
35 Vaned Diffuser
84
36 Return Crossover Bend
86
37 Return Vane Channel
87
38 SideStream Inlet
88
39 Volute
90
References
92
Compressor Design Constraints
93
412 Rotational Speed
94
414 Mach Number
95
415 Discharge Temperature
97
416 Impeller Exit Width
98
42 Derived Compound Constraints
99
422 Maximum Number of Impellers per Rotor
100
423 Maximum Volume Flow per Frame Size
104
424 Minimum Discharge Volume Flow of Turbocompressors
108
References
111
Compressor OffDesign Operation
113
511 Variable Speed
116
512 Suction Throttling
117
513 Adjustable Inlet Guide Vanes
118
514 Adjustable Diffuser Vanes
120
515 Bypass Regulation
122
52 Customary Performance Maps for Multistage Process Compressors
123
References
156
Aerodynamic Compressor Design Case Study
157
61 Approximate Compressor Sizing
158
62 Detailed Compressor Design
165
622 Impeller Exit
174
623 Stage Efficiency
184
624 Head Pressure Temperature Power
193
625 Diffuser Aerodynamics
196
626 Return Vane Channel
201
627 Volute and Conical Exit Diffuser
202
63 Impeller Blade Design
208
64 Axial Rotor Thrust
210
65 Leakage Flow through Labyrinth Seals
216
66 Final Compressor Design
217
Lateral Vibration Analysis
218
672 Stability
220
673 Logarithmic Decrement
222
68 Performance Map
224
69 Performance Test
227
References
229
Application Examples
231
71 HydrogenRich Gas Compressors
232
72 NaturalGas Compressors
236
73 Air Compressors
244
74 Refrigeration Compressors
247
75 Chlorine Compressors
251
76 Methanol Synthesis Gas Compressors
255
Improving Efficiency and Operating Range
259
812 Increased Diffuser Diameter Ratio
261
813 Improved Volute Geometry
264
814 ImpellerBlade CutBack
266
816 Reduction of Plenum Inlet Loss
267
818 Minimizing ImpellerDiaphragm Clearance
268
819 Reduction of Recirculation Losses
270
82 Increase of Operating Range
271
822 Delay of Stage Stall
273
References
279
Rerate of Process Centrifugal Compressors
281
912 Increase of Mass Flow
282
92 New Wider Impellers and Diaphragms
283
93 Higher Rotational Speed
285
931 Additional Losses
287
94 Supercharging with a Booster Compressor
294
AdvantagesDisadvantages
305
97 Conclusions
306
References
307
Standardization of Compressor Components
309
102 Modular Design System1
311
1021 Aerodynamic Stage Rating Range
312
1022 Impeller Family
313
1023 FrameSize Standardization
314
1024 Diaphragms
315
1026 Systematic Tests of Modular Design Stages
316
Appendix
317
EnglishGerman Glossary on Compressors
319
Subject Index
325
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