Public Expenditure Analysis, Page 976
For various reasons—whether philosophical, political, humanitarian, or by institutional mandate—people are concerned for the well being of the most vulnerable groups in society: women, the poor, and the elderly. Some would even measure the value of a political system by how well it cares for the least of its members.Related to this is the orientation of government toward the public more generally and the extent that it listens and responds to its citizens. More specifically, it is the rules and norms—the institutional framework—of government through which it takes into account the preferences of people on a day-to-day basis, not just at the ballot box.'Public Expenditure Analysis' explores two themes: the orientation of government towards its more vulnerable groups and the extent to which government is responsive to its citizens. The first part of the book provides tools, methodologies, and examples of how to examine the impact of government expenditures, taxes, pension systems and other policies on women, the poor, and the elderly. The second part looks at the different ways that the government listens to citizens' voices and proposes a new institutional framework for governments that wish to implement reforms that increase responsiveness: citizen-centered government and citizen-centered budgeting.
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accountability effect administrative adverse selection allocation approach budget and financial budgeting process capital markets changes citizen-centered governance citizen-oriented citizens civic contributions cost decentralization developing countries economic efficiency elderly employees ensure entities ernment evaluation example expenditure incidence facilitate finance fiscal function funds Gini coefficient Gini index governance process government expenditures government spending groups households incentives incidence analysis income component increase individuals inequality aversion institutions intergenerational transfers investment involve issues labor Lorenz curve ment outputs participation participatory participatory budgeting pension scheme pension system percent performance Philippines plans political poor poverty line programs public expenditure public pension public sector public spending redistribution responsive results-oriented retirement revenue risk road savings Shah social welfare social welfare function South African South African municipalities structures targeted tax incidence tion voice expression voice influence voice mechanisms welfare reform women World Bank
Page 44 - In this case, the question is narrowed to one of choosing e, which is clearly a measure of the degree of inequality-aversion - or the relative sensitivity to transfers at different income levels. As e rises, we attach more weight to transfers at the lower end of the distribution and less weight to transfers at the top. The limiting case at one extreme is...
Page xx - ... ANWAR SHAH is Lead Economist and Coordinator of the Public Sector Institutional Reform Cluster with the Operations Evaluation Department at the World Bank. He has advised the Governments of Brazil, Canada, Indonesia, China, South Africa, Pakistan, Argentina, and Mexico on fiscal federalism issues. His current research interests are in the areas of governance, fiscal federalism, fiscal reform, and global environment. He has published numerous books and articles, including Fiscal Incentives for...
Page 53 - Atkinson's (1970) idea of equally distributed equivalent level of income, the level which, if received by every individual, would result in the same level of social welfare as the actual income distribution.
Page 42 - For the economist is primarily interested, not in the distribution of income as such, but in the effects of the distribution of income upon the distribution and total amount of economic welfare, which may be derived from income.
Page 52 - To derive a welfare measure, it is assumed that social welfare is the sum of individual utilities that are functions of their respective incomes, and that every individual has the same utility function. The social welfare function based on these assumptions will be additive, separable, and symmetric. Suppose x is the per equivalent adult income of a household.
Page xviii - ROBIN BOADWAY is Sir Edward Peacock Professor of economic theory at Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada.
Page 33 - Musgrave, Richard A. 1 959. The Theory of Public Finance. New York: McGraw-Hill. Musgrave, Richard A., and Tun Thin. 1948. "Income Tax Progression, 1929-48.
Page 62 - Continued weaknesses in the tax effort and substantial debt service payments have constrained policy choices, particularly by limiting much-needed outlays for infrastructure and social sectors (health and education).