Public Expenditure Analysis, Page 976
World Bank, Jan 1, 2005 - Business & Economics - 256 pages
For various reasons—whether philosophical, political, humanitarian, or by institutional mandate—people are concerned for the well being of the most vulnerable groups in society: women, the poor, and the elderly. Some would even measure the value of a political system by how well it cares for the least of its members.Related to this is the orientation of government toward the public more generally and the extent that it listens and responds to its citizens. More specifically, it is the rules and norms—the institutional framework—of government through which it takes into account the preferences of people on a day-to-day basis, not just at the ballot box.'Public Expenditure Analysis' explores two themes: the orientation of government towards its more vulnerable groups and the extent to which government is responsive to its citizens. The first part of the book provides tools, methodologies, and examples of how to examine the impact of government expenditures, taxes, pension systems and other policies on women, the poor, and the elderly. The second part looks at the different ways that the government listens to citizens' voices and proposes a new institutional framework for governments that wish to implement reforms that increase responsiveness: citizen-centered government and citizen-centered budgeting.
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accountability effect administrators adverse selection Africa allocation approach budget and financial budgeting process capital markets changes citizen-oriented citizens civic Commonwealth Secretariat contributions cost decentralization developing countries economic efficiency elderly employees ensure entities ernment evaluation example expenditure incidence facilitate finance fiscal focus funds Gini coefficient Gini index governance process government expenditures government spending groups households identified incentives incidence analysis income component increase individuals inequality aversion influence institutions intergenerational transfers investment involve issues labor Lorenz curve market failure ment moral hazard outputs participation participatory pension scheme pension system percent performance Philippines plans political poor poverty line poverty threshold problems programs public expenditure public pension public sector public spending redistribution response retirement revenue risk road savings Shah social welfare social welfare function South African structures targeted tax incidence tion voice expression voice mechanisms women World Bank