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Political Effects of MBO
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accounting system achieved activities advantages agency's approach behavior bureau cash accounting chain of outputs changes Chapter clients cost centers decisions department head direct discussed emphasize employees example federal feedback financial management system flextime focus functions funds goal displacement groups Herbert Kaufman immediate outputs important improvement incentives increase indicators indirect costs input installed internal large number Management by Objectives managerial MBO system milestones million misreporting operations organization's organizational output measures output-oriented management systems percent performance monitoring systems personnel planning political private sector problems productivity profit centers program budget Public Administration Review public agencies public management public organizations public sector quality circles Regina Herzlinger result center revenues rewards staff standards structure subordinate subunit suggests top managers track transfer prices types U.S. Forest Service ultimate outputs unit usually variable costs workers York zation