Punishment in the Community: The Future of Criminal Justice
Punishment in the Community: The Future of Criminal Justice challenges the widely held assumption that punishment through imprisonment is central to the criminal justice system. Contemporary political debate assumes that penality is synonymous with prison. However, in reality, the vast majority of people admitting to, or convicted of criminal offences are dealt with using non-custodial penal measures.
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Introducing community punishment
From alternatives to custody to punishment in
The Criminal Justice Act 1991 and its demise
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1991 Criminal Justice adult alternatives to custody analysis argued assessment attempt casework cent Chapter client commit crime community punishment community sentences community service orders concern constructed courts Criminal Justice Act criminal justice system Crown Court custodial sentence day centres debate discourse discrimination effective emphasis England and Wales example female offenders Green Paper groups Home Secretary hostels imprisonment increasing increasingly individual involved Jamie Bulger Justice Act 1991 less magistrates male moral moral panic National Standards net-widening offender's offending behaviour organisations penal penalties police cautioning political practice pre-sentence reports prison population Prison Reform Trust probation centre probation officers probation orders probation service problems professional programmes Raynor recidivism recognised reduce rehabilitation relationship reoffending responsibility restorative justice risk role sent to prison sex offenders social inquiry reports social workers Tank Girl treatment values victims welfare Worrall young offenders young women