Quality Assessment of Textiles: Damage Detection by Microscopy

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Springer Science & Business Media, 2003 - Science - 238 pages
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Assessing the quality of textiles using textile microscopy remains one of the important instruments for permanent process improvement in the fiber, textile and apparel industries. The degree of international interlinking in the textile producing and finishing industries and their markets demands dearly defined and reproducible methods of detecting damage or defects at all process stages. This book -Quality Assessment of Textiles -Damage Detection by Microsco­ py - has in the meantime established itself so well as "the Mahall" in research institute laboratories investigating defects, in universities and colleges, in the training of textile chemists and technologists, and in the industry and the retail trade, that it has become necessary to bring out a new edition. This edition has been revised and supplemented by Mr. Mahall and his succes­ sor Ms. Irmhild Goebel and her staff. Cognis, as the successor organization continuing the textile business of the for­ mer Textile Technology department of Henkel, is pleased to make this new edi­ tion available to specialists, to students and to any other interested readers. June 2002 Dr. U. Kloubert (Cognis Deutschland GmbH & Co. KG) Prof E. Finnimore (Fachhochschule Hof, Germany) Foreword to the First Edition Quality is the decisive criterion by which textile industry is measured in the international competition. Today this is particularly true.
 

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Contents

1 Fundamentals and Priming
1
12 Preliminary Examination of Textile Test Material
2
14 Preparation of Negative Imprints with the Size of Microscope Slides
3
15 Preparation of Negative Imprints of Fibers and Yarns on Thermoplastic Films
6
161 Detection of Dyeing Unlevelness with the Aid of the Replication Method Practical Example
14
162 Detection of Oil andor Grease Soiling on Textile Fabrics
15
2 Chemical Damage
18
212 Alkaline Damage to Wool and WoolLike Natural Fibers
23
52 Streaks and Bars Parallel to Threads Due to Yarn Mixture Errors
127
523 Streaks in an Acrylic Fiber Fabric Due to Yarns of Different Origin Practical Example
130
525 Dye Unlevelness in Cotton Pieces Due to Yarns Manufactured According to Different Spinning Processes Practical Example
133
527 Warp Streaks in a BlackDyed Wool Fabric Practical Example
135
531 Streaks Due to Incorrect Mercerization Practical Example
137
534 Warp Streaks Due to Incorrect Texturing Practical Example
140
541 Streaks Parallel to the Threads in a Tufted Carpet Made of Pure Wool Caused by a Deeper Set Tuft Row Practical Example
141
543 Streak Formation in a Woven WalltoWall Carpet Due to Yam Differences Practical Example
143

2722 Strength Loss in Wool Caused by Alkalinely Reacting Untreated Yam Practical Example
30
2124 Limits of the Pauly Reaction Strong Alkaline Damage
31
214 Chlorine Damage to Wool
34
2141 Chlorination of a Wool Carpet Gold Afghan Increase of Luster Gold Effects Practical Example
35
22 Chemical Damage to Silk
37
222 Detection of Chemical Damage to Silk with Pauly Reagent
41
223 Control of the Degumming Effect
42
23 Chemical Damage to Cotton
43
232 Detection of Oxycellulose and Hydrocellulose
50
233 Bleaching Damage Due to Catalysts
53
234 Different Phenomena of Catalytic Bleaching Damage
55
2341 Holes and Tears in a Bleached Cotton Fabric Practical Example
58
24 Chemical Damage to Synthetics
59
242 Detection of AcidDamaged Polyamide Fibers by Means of Imprints Practical Example
62
244 Polyester Fabric with Acid Damage Practical Example
63
245 Detection of Saponified Acetate Fibers
66
3 Mechanical Damage
68
313 Light Stains on a Wool Cloth Caused by Mechanical Damage During Shearing Practical Example
70
315 Mechanical Damage to Wool Fibers Caused by Wool Pests
71
33 Mechanical Damage to Cotton
74
333 Graying of a Dyed Cotton Fabric After Extended Use
76
335 Darker Colored Streaks Due to Squashed Cotton Fibers Practical Example
78
34 Mechanical Damage to Cellulose Regenerated Fibers Graying During Dyeing on the Winch Practical Example
83
351 Graying of a Carpet Made of Acrylic Fibers Practical Example
85
4 Thermal and ThermoMechanical Damage to Synthetics
87
413 Graying in a Woven Fur Made of Polyvinyl Chloride and Acrylic Fibers After Drying Practical Example
89
414 Thermal Deformations During Texturizing
91
416 Singeing Damage to Synthetic Fibers
93
4162 Stain Formation and FilmLike Coating Due to Thermally Deformed FlatRolled Polyester Fibers Practical Example
95
4164 Strength Loss After Singeing Due to Melting of Polyester Fibers Practical Example
98
417 Damage Caused by Ironing
99
421 Streaks in a Piece of Knitwear Caused by Acrylic Fibers with ThermoMechanical Damage Practical Example
102
424 Thermal Deformation of Polyester Fibers as a Result of Excessive Spinning Speeds Practical Example
104
43 Thermal Damage to Synthetic Fibers Due to Impact
106
432 Light Streaks in a Black Dyed Polyester Fabric Due to Warp Splashes Practical Example
108
441 Thermally Bonded Cut Ends in Polyamide Short Staple
111
444 Streak Formation in a Velour Carpet Made of Polypropylene Practical Example
114
5 Streaks and Bars in Textile Fabrics Due to Yarn Differences and Technological Reasons
117
51 Streaks Due to Variations in the Yarn Volume or Yarn Count
119
514 Streaks and Bars in Cotton Fabrics Due to Varying Hairiness of the Weft Yarn Practical Example
122
516 Warp Streakiness in a PolyesterWool Fabric Due to Differences in Yarn Twist Practical Example
124
545 Streakiness in a Viscose Staple Plush Due to Yarn Differences Practical Example
145
6 Causes of the Formation of Tight Threads and Their Effects
146
612 Tight Threads in the Warp of a Wool Fabric Practical Example
147
62 Tight Picks in a Fabric Made of Viscose Practical Example
150
and Encrustations on the Fiber Material
153
711 Dye Resisting Effects of a Polyamide Fabric Practical Example
156
714 Detection of Oil andor Grease Soiling on Polyester
157
72 Detection of Oil Grease Wax and Paraffin Deposits by Means of Film Imprints
160
723 Streak Formation in Knitwear Caused by Uneven Paraffination Practical Example
161
731 Reserved Areas in a PolyesterCotton Fabric Due to Resin Deposits Practical Example
163
733 Pigment Soiling on a Plyed Yarn Made of Acrylic Fibers Practical Example
164
74 Detection of FilmForming Products and FilmLike Deposits by Means of Imprints
167
742 Wool Fabric Showing Chalky Marks when Scratched Caused by the Backing Practical Example
169
744 Deposits of Sizing Agent on the Weft Yarns of a PolyesterCotton Fabric Practical Example
172
751 Evaluation of Sizing Agent Distribution on Yarn CrossSections by Staining of the Starch Sizing Agent with Iodine Solution
173
753 Detection of Durable Antistatics by Staining
176
8 Other Defects in the Quality of Textiles
179
83 Small Light Spots Caused by Trapped air Bubbles During the Dyeing of Wound Packages
182
86 Darker Specks on Dyed Feather Bed Ticking Due to NonDecomposed Seed Husks Practical Example
183
89 Light Undyed Short Bristly Fibers in a Wool Yarn Practical Example
186
811 Running Marks in a Cotton Tricot Fabric Practical Example
188
814 Light Specks in a Milled Terry Towelling Fabric Due to Dead Cotton Practical Example
190
816 Knitted Goods Sticking Together in Garment Production Due to Hairiness of Cotton Yarn Practical Example
191
9 Microbiological Damage to Fibers
195
911 Mould Attack on Cotton Practical Example
196
912 Mould Attack on Sausage Yarn Made of Hemp Practical Example
199
915 Moulds on a Blended Fabric Made of PolyesterCotton Practical Example
201
917 Moulds on a Polyester Yarn Practical Example
203
919 CrossWound Bobbins Made of Wool with Brownish and Dark Green Mould Stains Practical Example
205
92 Damage Caused by Bacteria
208
921 Bacterial Attack on a Military Cloth Practical Example
209
922 Bacterially Damaged Carpet Yarn Practical Example
212
10 Poultry Feathers as Filling Material for Bedding and Textiles Analysis of Faults
214
102 Detection of damage to poultry feathers
215
1021 Detection of damage to poultry feathers with the Pauly reagent
216
References
222
Figures
227
Subject Index
231
Technical Equipment Chemicals Reagents and Dyes for Microscopic Damage Analysis
235
Copyright

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Page 225 - Horio, M., and Kondo, T. (1953). Crimping of wool fibres. Text. Res.

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