Quantitative Relationships Among Some Jack Pine-black Spruce Associations Subjected to Natural and Man-induced Disturbances: Final Technical Report
University of Minnesota, Department of Botany, 1975 - Forest ecology - 42 pages
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100 variables 1961 disturbance sites 46 species Ahlgren AVERAGE WITHIN-GROUP DISPERSION Based upon forest based upon frequency black spruce black spruce—feather moss Canonical Analysis canonical coordinates canonical space Climate of Minnesota defined community types dendrograms based discriminate functions dispersion using standard disturbance experienced dominated by jack excluded tree feather moss followed by slash frequency and cover Grigal and Ohmann hydrometer invader species jack pine jack pine—black spruce linear transforms logged and slash logging followed M—2 samples macrophyllus MAN—INDUCED DISTURBANCES mineral soil samples MUTUAL INFORMATION natural wildfire non—windrow areas non—windrow portions nutrients in windrows pine and black PINE—BLACK SPRUCE ASSOCIATIONS pine—black spruce type post—logging treatment relationships rock—raked sites sapling data similar slash burned sites standard distance study sites Superior National Forest tree and sapling type of disturbance upland community types virgin sites Waters Canoe Area wildfire and rock—raked wildfire sites windrow and non—windrow windrow areas WITHIN-GROUP DISPERSION PERCENT