## Quantum Concepts in Physics: An Alternative Approach to the Understanding of Quantum MechanicsWritten for advanced undergraduates, physicists, and historians and philosophers of physics, this book tells the story of the development of our understanding of quantum phenomena through the extraordinary years of the first three decades of the twentieth century. Rather than following the standard axiomatic approach, this book adopts a historical perspective, explaining clearly and authoritatively how pioneers such as Heisenberg, Schrodinger, Pauli and Dirac developed the fundamentals of quantum mechanics and merged them into a coherent theory, and why the mathematical infrastructure of quantum mechanics has to be as complex as it is. The author creates a compelling narrative, providing a remarkable example of how physics and mathematics work in practice. The book encourages an enhanced appreciation of the interaction between mathematics, theory and experiment, helping the reader gain a deeper understanding of the development and content of quantum mechanics than any other text at this level. |

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It Explains the Basic Concept in Simple and clear terms

### Contents

Physics and theoretical physics in 1895 | 3 |

Planck and blackbody radiation | 24 |

Einstein and quanta 19001911 | 48 |

The Bohr model of the hydrogen atom | 71 |

Sommerfeld and Ehrenfest generalising the Bohr model | 90 |

Einstein coefﬁcients Bohrs correspondence principle and the ﬁrst selection rules | 119 |

Understanding atomic spectra additional quantum numbers | 137 |

Bohrs model of the periodic table and the origin of spin | 155 |

Matrix mechanics | 224 |

Diracs quantum mechanics | 247 |

Schrodinger and wave mechanics | 261 |

Reconciling matrix and wave mechanics | 292 |

Spin and quantum statistics | 312 |

The interpretation of quantum mechanics | 343 |

The aftermath | 368 |

Epilogue | 388 |

The waveparticle duality | 172 |

The Discovery of Quantum Mechanics | 187 |

The Heisenberg breakthrough | 203 |

405 | |

Name index | 432 |

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### Common terms and phrases

amplitude analysis angular momentum approach associated black-body radiation Bohr Bohr model Bohr’s Boltzmann Born Born’s calculation classical classical mechanics coefﬁcients components concept constant coordinates correspondence principle deﬁned deﬁnition derived dipole Dirac discovery eigenvalues Einstein electric ﬁeld electromagnetic electron elements elliptical emission energy levels entropy experimental experiments expression ﬁmction ﬁnal ﬁnd ﬁrst ﬂuctuations formalism formula frequency function Hamiltonian harmonic Heisenberg helium hydrogen atom integral interpretation Jordan kinetic Kramers Lorentz magnetic ﬁeld mathematical matrix mechanics Maxwell’s molecules motion nucleus ofthe old quantum theory operator orbits oscillator paper particles Pauli perturbation physicists Planck Poisson brackets polarisation potential principal quantum problem protons q-numbers quantisation quantities quantum conditions quantum mechanics relation relativistic remarkable result rules Schrodinger Schrodinger’s Sect signiﬁcance solution Sommerfeld speciﬁc spectral lines spectrum spin stationary statistical temperature theoretical transformation transition values variables vector velocity wave equation wave mechanics waveﬁmction wavefunction wavelength X-ray zero