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Paramagnetic Maser Amplifiers
Maser Oscillators for the Microwave Range
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absorption achieved Aco0 amplification factor amplitude atoms axis balance equations band bandwidth broadening calculation cavity resonator circuit coefficient collisions components corresponding coupling cross-relaxation density density matrix depends discussed distribution emitted energy levels equilibrium example excited expression frequency g-factor gas laser gases Hamiltonian helium input interaction inversion lamp laser action magnetic field magnetic g-factor maser amplifier maser oscillators method mirrors mode modulation molecular beam molecular oscillator neon noise temperature obtain operation optical output paramagnetic paramagnetic amplifier paramagnetic crystals paramagnetic maser parameters phase phase plane Phys plane population difference population inversion possible Proc pulsed pump power quantity quantum electronics Raman laser region relaxation resonator result rotation ruby laser rutile saturation self-excitation shown in Fig signal specimen spectral line spectrum spin Hamiltonian stationary stimulated emission structure substance theory thermal three-level threshold tion transition travelling-wave two-level maser wave waveguide wavelength width yLT2