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Paramagnetic Maser Amplifiers
The interaction of matter with a field
Nonstationary perturbation theory Transition probability
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absorption achieved Aco0 amplification factor amplitude atoms axis band bandwidth calculation coefficient components confocal corresponding coupling Cr3+ cross-relaxation crystal field cubic field curves density depends determined discussed distribution effect eigenfrequencies emitted energy levels equilibrium excited expression frequency function g-factor gas laser gases Hamiltonian helium input interaction inversion laser action magnetic field maser amplifier matrix elements method mirrors modes molecular beam molecular oscillator molecules noise noise temperature obtain operation optical orbital oscillation output paramagnetic paramagnetic amplifier paramagnetic crystals paramagnetic ion parameters phase phase plane Phys plane polarization population difference population inversion possible Proc pulsed pump power quantity quantum electronics quantum numbers Raman laser region relaxation resonator result rotation ruby laser saturation self-excitation shown in Fig signal spectral line spectrum spin Hamiltonian spin-orbit spin-orbit interaction splitting stimulated emission substance symmetry temperature theory three-level threshold tion transition travelling-wave values wave waveguide wavelength width yLT2