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MARKETS DISCRIMINATION AND AF FIRMATIVE
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6th Cir adopted afﬁrmative action agency analysis applied Associated General Contractors awarded Baltimore beneﬁt bid preference BPA study cert challenge city contracts City of Richmond city’s competitive Congress constitutional constitutionality construction court of appeals Croson Croson decision Dade County deﬁned disparity studies district court economic enacted Equal Protection Clause evidence F ullilove ﬁndings ﬁrst Fourteenth Amendment goals govemment govemmental H. K. Porter Hillsborough County Hispanics identiﬁed industry intermediate scrutiny Justice O’Connor King County legislative litigation M/WBEs MBE program Metro Broadcasting Michael Carvin minority business minority ﬁrms minority set-aside minority-owned ﬁrms narrowly tailored Ninth Circuit nonminority opinion Ordinance 790 participation past discrimination percentage plaintiffs political proﬁts public contracting qualiﬁed race race-conscious race-neutral racial classiﬁcation racial preferences reﬂect remedial Roger Clegg San Francisco set-aside program set-aside provision speciﬁc statute strict scrutiny subcontractors sufﬁcient Supp supra note Supreme Court tion WBEs Wygant