Radar Propagation at Low Altitudes

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This report reviews the subject of electromagnetic wave propagation near the earth's surface as it relates to the detection of low-flying aircraft by ground-based radars. Separate sections describe how current knowledge of the three fundamental physical phenomena -- refraction, reflection, and diffraction -- is applied to the problems of low-altitude propagation. Simple models incorporating these phenomena are discussed: (1) propagation over a plane with arbitrary reflection coefficient, (2) propagation over a knife-edge on a plane, and (3) propagation over a smooth, spherical earth. Computer programs for models (2) and (3) are given in the Appendices. We include a bibliography of the literature on which this report is based: books, journal articles, and technical reports. References are listed alphabetically by first author, and subject indices are given for major subject headings. 0.

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The Pattern Propagation Factor
Reflection and Absorption Effects of Terrain
Diffraction Effects

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