## Radar Propagation at Low AltitudesThis report reviews the subject of electromagnetic wave propagation near the earth's surface as it relates to the detection of low-flying aircraft by ground-based radars. Separate sections describe how current knowledge of the three fundamental physical phenomena -- refraction, reflection, and diffraction -- is applied to the problems of low-altitude propagation. Simple models incorporating these phenomena are discussed: (1) propagation over a plane with arbitrary reflection coefficient, (2) propagation over a knife-edge on a plane, and (3) propagation over a smooth, spherical earth. Computer programs for models (2) and (3) are given in the Appendices. We include a bibliography of the literature on which this report is based: books, journal articles, and technical reports. References are listed alphabetically by first author, and subject indices are given for major subject headings. 0. |

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### Contents

The Pattern Propagation Factor | 2 |

Reflection and Absorption Effects of Terrain | 13 |

Diffraction Effects | 26 |

Copyright | |

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20 log F Aerospace AIRY FUNCTION Antennas Propag Bachynski Barton Beckmann Bullington clearance computation curves cylinder Day and Trolese Deygout method dielectric constant diffraction regions dN/dh Dougherty earth radius effective earth radius electric Electromagnetic Waves Equation Figure free space Fresnel equations Fresnel zone geometrical geometrical-optics ground horizontal Hufford IEEE IEEE Trans interference region IRE Trans knife-edge diffraction LaGrone lobe Longley loss calculations low altitudes low grazing angles low-altitude propagation measurements Meeks Microwave Mrstik Multipath parameter path pattern-propagation factor phase plane principal mask problem Proc propagation at low propagation effects propagation factor Radio Propagation Radio Sci radio waves radius of curvature range reflected wave reflection coefficient refractivity gradient Reudink Rough Surfaces Section shows smooth spherical earth snow solution specific humidity specular specular reflection Straiton target height temperature terrain profile tion UHF frequencies values vertical polarization Vogler Wave Propagation wavelength well-mixed atmosphere X-band