Rational Empires: Institutional Incentives and Imperial Expansion

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University of Chicago Press, Apr 9, 2012 - History - 218 pages
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The nineteenth century marked the high point of imperialism, when tsarist Russia expanded to the Pacific and the sun was said never to set on the British Empire. Imperialism remains a perennial issue in international relations today, and nowhere is this more evident than in the intensifying competition for global resources.          

Leo J. Blanken explains imperialism through an analysis of the institutions of both the expanding state and its targets of conquest. While democratic states favoring free trade generally resort to imperialism only to preempt aggressive rivals—or when they have reason to believe another state’s political institutions will not hold up when making bargains—authoritarian states tend toward imperialism because they don’t stand to benefit from free trade. The result is three distinct strategies toward imperialism: actors fighting over territory, actors peaceably dividing territory among themselves, and actors refraining from seizing territory altogether. Blanken examines these dynamics through three case studies: the scramble for Africa, the unequal treaties imposed on Qing Dynasty China, and the evolution of Britain’s imperial policy in India. By separating out the different types of imperialism, Blanken provides insight into its sources, as well as the potential implications of increased competition in the current international arena.

 

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Contents

The Enduring Puzzles of Formal Imperialism
1
An Institutional Theory of Formal Imperialism
26
The Curiously Courteous Scramble The Case of Tropical Africa
51
Failing to Carve the Dragon The Case of Qing Dynasty China
82
From Plunder to Public Goods The Case of British India
111
Conclusions The Past and Future of Rational Empires
139
An Institutional Model of Imperialism
159
Notes
167
Works Cited
175
Index
209
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About the author (2012)

Leo J. Blanken is assistant professor in the Department of Defense Analysis at the Naval Postgraduate School.

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