Recent Advances in Metrology and Fundamental Constants: Varenna on Lake Como, Villa Monastero, 25 July-4 August 2000

Front Cover
Terry J. Quinn, T. J. Quinn, Sigfrido Leschiutta, P. Tavella, SocietÓ italiana di fisica
IOS Press, 2001 - Science - 827 pages
Over the last decade of the 20th century, many improvements took place in the field of metrology and fundamental constants. These developments and improvements are discussed in this book. The old caesium SI second definition has found a new realization with the fountain approach, replacing the classical thermal atomic beam. The use of cold atom techniques, slowed down and cooled, has opened a number of unexpected avenues for metrology and fundamental constants, one of these possibilities being the atom interferometry. Another development was the demonstration of the possiblility of performing a direct frequency division in the visible, using short femtosecond pulses. Many other developments are also discussed.
 

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Contents

The two classes of SI units 4 The SI prefixes 5 SI units in the framework of general relativity 6 Units outside the SI 7 Conclusions 3 4 6
3
Units
4
The equations of physics and definitional constants
5
Coherent systems of units
6
Dimensions
7
Base quantities and units the equations of physics derived quantities and units and the International System 9 The SI prefixes
8
On the number of independent base quantities and units
10
Electromagnetic quantities and units
11
Basic physics and impact
397
Optically pumped cell standards
427
Impact of atomic frequency standards on the SI
444
J HELMCKE and F RIEHLE Physics behind the definition of the meter
453
Outlook and conclusion
489
G WILKENING Optical and mechanical metrology
495
G WILKENING Nanometrology
519
N P Fox Developments in optical radiometry
537

S LESCHIUTTA Metrology and the logic of physics
51
T J QUINN Measurement and society
73
B W PETLEY I The fundamental constants and physics
93
B W PETLEY II The fundamental constants and metrology
121
T J QUINN The Newtonian constant of gravitation
145
B W PETLEY
157
the Josephson effect and quantum Hall effect
163
Other measurements providing information about
170
G MANA The Avogadro constant pag
177
GAVIOSO Determination of the universal gas constant R and other
195
P CANCIO F MINARDI and M INGUSCIO Finestructure constant a and
217
R S DAVIS Mass metrology
241
B JECKELMANN The quantum Hall effect and its application in metrology
263
MARK W KELLER Standards of current and capacitance based on single
291
Programmable Josephson voltage standards
335
327
344
pag
575
laboratory test of a proposed
645
W BICH Estimation and uncertainty in metrology
653
S LESCHIUTTA Education in metrology
687
Guide
689
Models
696
Predictive modellinga basic principle for model building
704
SERGIENKO Quantum metrology with entangled photons
715
T W H─NSCH R HOLZWARTH J REICHERT and Th UDEM Measuring
747
FORT F MINARDI M MODUGNO and M INGUSCIO Experiments with
765
Ramseytype interferometer with BECs
773
F T ARECCHI Chaos metrology and fundamental constants
781
Phase slips ad the adaptive pacemaker
803
Elenco dei partecipanti
816
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