## Recent Advances in Metrology and Fundamental Constants: Varenna on Lake Como, Villa Monastero, 25 July-4 August 2000Terry J. Quinn, T. J. Quinn, Sigfrido Leschiutta, P. Tavella, Società italiana di fisica Over the last decade of the 20th century, many improvements took place in the field of metrology and fundamental constants. These developments and improvements are discussed in this book. The old caesium SI second definition has found a new realization with the fountain approach, replacing the classical thermal atomic beam. The use of cold atom techniques, slowed down and cooled, has opened a number of unexpected avenues for metrology and fundamental constants, one of these possibilities being the atom interferometry. Another development was the demonstration of the possiblility of performing a direct frequency division in the visible, using short femtosecond pulses. Many other developments are also discussed. |

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### Contents

The two classes of SI units 4 The SI prefixes 5 SI units in the framework of general relativity 6 Units outside the SI 7 Conclusions 3 4 6 | 3 |

Units | 4 |

The equations of physics and definitional constants | 5 |

Coherent systems of units | 6 |

Dimensions | 7 |

Base quantities and units the equations of physics derived quantities and units and the International System 9 The SI prefixes | 8 |

On the number of independent base quantities and units | 10 |

Electromagnetic quantities and units | 11 |

Basic physics and impact | 397 |

Optically pumped cell standards | 427 |

Impact of atomic frequency standards on the SI | 444 |

J HELMCKE and F RIEHLE Physics behind the definition of the meter | 453 |

Outlook and conclusion | 489 |

G WILKENING Optical and mechanical metrology | 495 |

G WILKENING Nanometrology | 519 |

N P Fox Developments in optical radiometry | 537 |

S LESCHIUTTA Metrology and the logic of physics | 51 |

T J QUINN Measurement and society | 73 |

B W PETLEY I The fundamental constants and physics | 93 |

B W PETLEY II The fundamental constants and metrology | 121 |

T J QUINN The Newtonian constant of gravitation | 145 |

B W PETLEY | 157 |

the Josephson effect and quantum Hall effect | 163 |

Other measurements providing information about | 170 |

G MANA The Avogadro constant pag | 177 |

GAVIOSO Determination of the universal gas constant R and other | 195 |

P CANCIO F MINARDI and M INGUSCIO Finestructure constant a and | 217 |

R S DAVIS Mass metrology | 241 |

B JECKELMANN The quantum Hall effect and its application in metrology | 263 |

MARK W KELLER Standards of current and capacitance based on single | 291 |

Programmable Josephson voltage standards | 335 |

327 | 344 |

pag | 575 |

laboratory test of a proposed | 645 |

W BICH Estimation and uncertainty in metrology | 653 |

687 | |

Guide | 689 |

Models | 696 |

Predictive modellinga basic principle for model building | 704 |

SERGIENKO Quantum metrology with entangled photons | 715 |

T W HÄNSCH R HOLZWARTH J REICHERT and Th UDEM Measuring | 747 |

FORT F MINARDI M MODUGNO and M INGUSCIO Experiments with | 765 |

Ramseytype interferometer with BECs | 773 |

F T ARECCHI Chaos metrology and fundamental constants | 781 |

Phase slips ad the adaptive pacemaker | 803 |

Elenco dei partecipanti | 816 |

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