## Recent Advances in Metrology and Fundamental Constants: Varenna on Lake Como, Villa Monastero, 25 July-4 August 2000Over the last decade of the 20th century, many improvements took place in the field of metrology and fundamental constants. These developments and improvements are discussed in this book. The old caesium SI second definition has found a new realization with the fountain approach, replacing the classical thermal atomic beam. The use of cold atom techniques, slowed down and cooled, has opened a number of unexpected avenues for metrology and fundamental constants, one of these possibilities being the atom interferometry. Another development was the demonstration of the possiblility of performing a direct frequency division in the visible, using short femtosecond pulses. Many other developments are also discussed. |

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### Contents

T J Quinn The international system of units SI the last ten years | 3 |

History of the development of the SI | 4 |

The two classes of SI units | 6 |

The SI prefixes | 8 |

Units outside the SI | 9 |

T J Quinn The organization of metrology | 11 |

The metre convention | 13 |

The 21st CGPM | 16 |

B W Petley I The fundamental constants and physics | 93 |

B W Petley II The fundamental constants and metrology | 121 |

B W PETLEY III The Planck constant | 157 |

R S DAVIS Mass metrology | 241 |

B Jeckelmann The quantum Hall effect and its application in metrology | 263 |

Measurement techniques | 271 |

AC measurements of the QHR | 287 |

Basic physics of SET devices | 293 |

The broader organization of metrology | 20 |

International collaboration in metrology through regional cooperations | 22 |

The CIPM MRA | 23 |

Conclusions | 25 |

Mills Physical quantities and units | 27 |

Preamble | 28 |

Quantities | 30 |

Units | 31 |

Coherent systems of units | 33 |

Dimensions | 34 |

The SI prefixes | 38 |

On the number of independent base quantities and units | 39 |

Electromagnetic quantities and units | 41 |

S Leschiutta Metrology and the logic of physics | 51 |

T J Quinn Measurement and society | 73 |

S Leschiutta Education in metrology | 83 |

Traps for neutral atoms | 360 |

Metrology with cold atoms pag | 370 |

Nonlinear atom optics with BoseEinstein condensates | 383 |

Basic physics and impact | 397 |

Impact of atomic frequency standards on the SI | 444 |

Helmcke and F Riehle Physics behind the definition of the meter | 453 |

G Wilkening Optical and mechanical metrology | 495 |

G Wilkening Nanometrology | 519 |

N P Fox Developments in optical radiometry | 537 |

P Wolf Relativity and metrology pag | 575 |

P Wolf Relativity with clocks in space | 599 |

laboratory test of a proposed | 645 |

W Bich Estimation and uncertainty in metrology | 653 |

Sergienko Quantum metrology with entangled photons | 715 |

Elenco dei partecipanti | 816 |

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