## Recent Advances in Metrology and Fundamental Constants: Varenna on Lake Como, Villa Monastero, 25 July-4 August 2000Terry J. Quinn, T. J. Quinn, Sigfrido Leschiutta, P. Tavella, Società italiana di fisica Over the last decade of the 20th century, many improvements took place in the field of metrology and fundamental constants. These developments and improvements are discussed in this book. The old caesium SI second definition has found a new realization with the fountain approach, replacing the classical thermal atomic beam. The use of cold atom techniques, slowed down and cooled, has opened a number of unexpected avenues for metrology and fundamental constants, one of these possibilities being the atom interferometry. Another development was the demonstration of the possiblility of performing a direct frequency division in the visible, using short femtosecond pulses. Many other developments are also discussed. |

### Contents

Femtosecond light pulses | 3 |

The role of the fundamental constants in the gap between the national stan | 4 |

Units outside the | 9 |

The various faces of the modelling problem | 11 |

MILLS Physical quantities and units | 27 |

Coherent systems of units | 33 |

On the number of independent base quantities and units | 39 |

S LESCHIUTTA | 51 |

158 | 347 |

Deceleration and cooling of an atomic beam | 356 |

41 | 362 |

Coherent manipulation of BoseEinstein condensates with light | 374 |

Nonlinear atom optics with BoseEinstein condensates | 383 |

J VANIER | 397 |

Other microwave frequency standards | 440 |

Incidence on the study of fundamental physical phenomena and determination | 447 |

Modern approach | 58 |

The theory of measurement | 64 |

Measurement in manufacturing industries | 74 |

Conclusions | 80 |

Signal processing | 87 |

B W PETLEY I The fundamental constants and physics | 93 |

61 | 109 |

The fundamental constants and mass measurement | 126 |

The fundamental constants and temperature measurement | 134 |

Conclusion | 138 |

Introduction | 157 |

Other measurements providing information about | 170 |

Basic applications of speedofsound measurements | 177 |

Theoretical basis of measurement | 204 |

Improving the accuracy of helium spectroscopy | 234 |

R S DAVIS Mass metrology | 241 |

Conclusion | 260 |

B JECKELMANN The quantum Hall effect and its application in metrology | 263 |

The QHE and fundamental constants | 282 |

MARK W KELLER | 291 |

FORT F MINARDI M MODUGNO and M INGUSCIO | 297 |

SET current standard | 306 |

ANDREONE | 317 |

Josephson array voltage standard for 10 V | 327 |

Programmable Josephson voltage standards | 335 |

Predictive modellinga basic principle for model building | 337 |

Conclusions | 344 |

The meter prototype 18891960 | 455 |

Optical frequency synthesis | 456 |

2 | 503 |

45 | 513 |

Metrological properties of scanning probe microscopesstate of the | 531 |

N P Fox Developments in optical radiometry | 537 |

Applications of cryogenic radiometers | 547 |

Thermal radiometry | 555 |

8 | 561 |

Traceability | 567 |

P WOLF Relativity and metrology | 575 |

Some coordinate systems and metric tensors | 584 |

Gravitational wave detection using gyroscopes | 593 |

P WOLF Relativity with clocks in space | 599 |

laboratory test of a proposed | 645 |

W BICH Estimation and uncertainty in metrology | 653 |

The method of Jacobians | 680 |

Conclusion | 685 |

pag | 689 |

pag | 747 |

763 | |

778 | |

F T ARECCHI Chaos metrology and fundamental constants | 781 |

The logistic | 791 |

Synchronization of homoclinic chaos | 798 |

Elenco dei partecipanti | 816 |

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