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accents advantage of recitation amount Average Median Average Average score P. E. cent Columbia University combination computed E. L. Thorndike Educational Psychology eight minutes employed experiments fact factors fatigue functions Grade eight Grade five Grade four Grade six Grade three greater groups Hour B Text Hour E Text immediate test introducing recitation introspective Katzaroff Kiihn learner learning by reading learning by recitation lesson Median Average Median memorizing Method Five Method Four method of learning Method Three methods of study nonsense material nonsense syllables number of repetitions number of syllables obtained optimum present Psychology pupils pure reading reading and recitation reading method reading series recall recitation method Relative score retention tests satisfyingness Score Repetitions Score sense material series of nonsense Squad 4 Trial Subjects report superiority of Method Text 1 Squad Text 3 Squad tion total number Trial 4 Hour Trial 5 Hour various visual imprinting Witasek words
Page 24 - What are the relative values of learning by reading as compared to learning by recitation in the case of school children working under school conditions and with the ordinary school-room methods of attack?
Page 94 - When any conduction unit is in readiness to conduct, for it to do so is satisfying. When any conduction unit is not in readiness to conduct, for it to conduct is annoying. When any conduction unit is in readiness to conduct, for it not to do so is annoying.
Page 30 - Now you are to try to say to yourselves as much of the material as you can without looking at the card. When you cannot remember the next word look down at your card and then go on saying as many of them as possible without looking. Glance at the card again whenever you cannot remember. Go through the list from the first word to the last in this way and continue until the word "Time
Page 101 - ... it was found that recitation leads to greater certainty of one's knowledge. It enables the learner not only to know but to be aware of how well he knows. Fewer blunders and erroneous recalls are made. The material is better organized; it is in more usable form. The meaning of the material is better obtained, and the relations among parts becomes more clear.
Page 28 - The errors arising from differences in the difficulty of the texts are avoided, because each method has to its credit one group working with each of the six texts.
Page 27 - ... squads, for reasons which will be evident, being made equal to the number of hours in the school day.
Page 30 - Go' you turn the card over and begin to study. "Now you are going to study for a while in one way and then later you are going to study in a very different way. To begin with you are to study by reading this list of words over and over from beginning to end [illustrate]. Remember you are to read only. You should never look away from the paper; never close your eyes...
Page 103 - ... the material presented, selecting the important points, organizing them into a systematic whole as the lecture progresses, and for the most part, delaying to a later hour the writing of the notes. Later in the day or evening, the lecture is rehearsed and an outline written down for future reference. While some disadvantages, or more likely, inconveniences, of such a method may appear, certain advantages of an important nature 'are obvious. First of all, the student may develop better habits 8...
Page 26 - CHURCH, born in Michigan, February 15, 1869. Studied in Munich, and later studied Forestry and Agriculture. Director of Mt. Rose Weather Observatory in 1906. Studied evaporation of snow, water content, and frost. JOHN CLARK, born in Indiana, June 4, 1867. Studied Surgery and became a doctor in Philadelphia. Taught at Johns Hopkins. Has visited Italy and Russia. Has a brother in Vancouver. MORTON CLOVER, born in Ohio, April 25, 1875. Studied Chemistry at Michigan. Worked in Manila for eight years....
Page 30 - Ready' you take the card at the corner like this and at 'Go' you turn the card over and begin to study. "Now you are going to study for a while in one way and then later you are going to study in a very different way. To begin with you are to study by reading this list...