Recognition and Management of Pesticide Poisonings

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DIANE Publishing, 1989 - Technology & Engineering - 207 pages
Designed as guidance for emergency management, this manual deals almost entirely with short-term (acute) harmful effects of pesticides. Included is information on the health hazards of pesticides currently in use, along with current consensus recommendations for management of poisonings and injuries caused by them. Formatted for quick reference by through indexing, the book addresses poisoning by insecticides, pesticides, herbicides, fungicides, rodenticides, fumigants, and other solvents, acaricides, repellents, and adjuvants. Indexed by symptoms and signs and by chemical and product names. Illustrated.
 

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Contents

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Page viii - Effects Research Laboratory United States Environmental Protection Agency Research Triangle Park, North Carolina Wayne Snodgrass, MD, Ph.D.
Page 13 - ... (muscarinic effects), at skeletal nerve-muscle junctions and autonomic ganglia (nicotinic effects), and in the brain. At cholinergic nerve junctions with smooth muscle and gland cells, high ACh concentration causes muscle contraction and secretion, respectively. At skeletal muscle junctions, excess ACh may be excitatory (cause muscle twitching), but may also weaken or paralyze the cell by depolarizing the end-plate. In the brain, high ACh concentrations cause sensory and behavioral disturbances,...
Page 27 - A 95% solution of the free alkaloid in organic solvent has been marketed in the past as a greenhouse fumigant. Another product used for the same purpose is a 40% aqueous solution of nicotine sulfate. Significant volatilization of nicotine occurs from both products. Commercial nicotine insecticides have long been known as Black Leaf 40. Formulations include sprays and dusts. Very little nicotine insecticide is used in the United States today; in fact, most nicotine poisonings are the result of ingestion...
Page 48 - Flush contamination from eyes with copious amounts of clean water or saline. If irritation persists, medical attention must be obtained. If a very large amount of methoprene has been ingested, oral administration of charcoal may be considered. The hazards of catharsis (dehydration, electrolyte disturbances) probably outweigh the hazards of methoprene. SULFUR s=s COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS Brimstone, Lacco Sulfur, Clifton Sulfur, Sul-Cide, Cosan, Kumulus S, Sofril, Sulfex. Thiolux, Thiovit, Magnetic 6, Liquid...
Page 19 - ... sometimes limited to myoclonic jerking, but often expressed as violent seizures. Convulsions caused by the more slowly metabolized cyclodienes may recur over periods of several days. Convulsions may cause death by interfering with pulmonary gas exchange and by generating severe metabolic acidosis. Various disturbances of sensation, coordination, and mental function are also characteristic of acute organochlorine poisoning. High tissue concentrations of organochlorines increase myocardial irritability,...
Page viii - Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Miami School of Medicine...
Page 19 - Lindane is partially dechlorinated and oxidized following absorption, promptly yielding a series of conjugated chlorophenols and other oxidation products in the urine. The chief toxic action of the organochlorine pesticides is on the nervous system, where these compounds interfere with fluxes of cations across nerve cell membranes, increasing neuronal irritability. This effect is manifest mainly as convulsions, sometimes limited to myoclonic jerking, but often expressed as violent seizures. Convulsions...
Page 19 - Lindane, chlordane, and dieldrin have been associated anecdotally with certain rare hematologic disorders, including aplastic anemia; the incidence of these effects appears to be extremely low. Poisoning by endosulfan has caused blindness in sheep. Mirex at high dosage produces cataracts in rats and mice. The DDT analogue known as DDD is selectively concentrated in adrenal tissue, where high levels have an inhibitory effect on corticosteroid synthesis, and a damaging effect on the cells. Certain...
Page 2 - Easy off-D), pirimiphos-methyl (Actellic), iodofenphos (Nuvanol-N), chlorphoxim (Baythion-C), propyl thiopyrophosphate (Aspon), bromophos (Nexion), tetrachlorvinphos (Gardona, Appex, Stirofos), temephos (Abate, Abathion). TOXICOLOGY Organophosphates poison insects and mammals primarily by phosphorylation of the acetylcholinesterase enzyme (AChE) at nerve endings. The enzyme is critical to normal control of nerve impulse transmission from nerve fibers to muscle and gland cells, and also to other nerve...
Page 31 - TOXICOLOGY OF SABADILLA Sabadilla dust is very irritating to the upper respiratory tract, causing sneezing, and is also irritating to the skin. Veratrin alkaloids are apparently absorbed across the skin and gut, and probably by the lung as well. Veratrin alkaloids have a digitalislike action on the heart muscle (impaired conduction and arrhythmias). MANIFESTATIONS OF SABADILLA POISONING Although poisoning by medicinal veratrin preparations may have occurred in the remote past, systemic poisoning...

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