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INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY
DISTRIBUTION AND REDISTRIBUTION
ALTERNATIVE STRATEGIES FOR REDISTRIBUTION
50 percent 93rd Congress addition AFDC alternative American Enterprise Institute average income benefits billion breakeven income cash transfer Census chapter consumption cost disposable income distribution of income earnings economic effective marginal tax effort equal estimates example families headed families with incomes family income family of four federal income tax figures finance food stamp program groups important in-kind transfers incentives income distribution income effect income guarantee income levels increase inequality low-income families low-income population lowest quartile marginal tax rate market wage rate Milton Friedman minimum wage laws negative income tax NIT plan NIT program nonpoor number of poor Okner outlays percent NIT percent of NNP percentage points poor families poor persons poverty line pretransfer income public housing quintile receiving transfers recipients reduce series P-60 simply social security social welfare expenditures spend substitution effect Table taxpayers total income transfer programs U.S. Bureau U.S. Congress welfare system workers