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How Reference Groups Influence Behavior
What Determines the Choice
acceptance achieve actor Albert Cohen alternatives and/or ASPECT OF REFERENCE attitudes become boys Carolyn Sherif Chicago child choice of reference Clifford Shaw cognitive dissonance Cognitive dissonance theory Cohen commitment communication concept conflict conformity consistent Cressey crime criminal behavior culture define dependent desirable develop deviant differential association theory Edwin H ence group expected experiences fate control feel gang gang members group norms iden identity influence interaction law-abiding learning Louis Wirth membership ment Merton moral Muzafer needs neighborhood Newcomb normative aspect norms and values one's opportunity parents person primary group prison quent Ralph H reference group theory reference individual relationship rewards role models sanctions satisfaction secondary reinforcement Secord and Backman self-conception self-identity set of norms sharing Sherif similar social category social contacts social norms society solidarity Spergel street-gang worker Sutherland Synanon tend Thibaut and Kelley tion tive Vander Zanden violation W. I. Thomas York