Regulating Agricultural Biotechnology: Economics and Policy

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Richard E. Just, Julian M. Alston, David Zilberman
Springer Science & Business Media, Dec 26, 2006 - Technology & Engineering - 732 pages
REGULATING AGRICULTURAL BIOTECHNOLOGY: ECONOMICS AND POLICY Chapter 1 REGULATING AGRICULTURAL BIOTECHNOLOGY: INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW Richard E. Just,* David Zilberman/ and Julian M. Alston * University of Maryland, * University of California, Berkeley, University of California, Davis Abstract: This chapter introduces the topic of this book, drawing upon the content of its chapters. An overview is provided on the economics of technological regulation as applied to agricultural crop biotechnologies. Key elements of agricultural biotechnology regulation in the United States are summarized. Key words: agricultural biotechnologies, causes and consequences of technological regula tion, overview and synthesis 1. INTRODUCTION Agricultural biotechnologies apply modern knowledge in molecular and cell biology to produce new varieties and similar genetic materials. The use of genetically modified (GM) crop varieties has grown dramatically since they were introduced in 1995, and large portions of the land allocated to corn, soybeans, and cotton are grown with these varieties. The evidence from the United States, Canada, China, India, Brazil, and Argentina suggests that these applications of biotechnology in agriculture increase yield, reduce the use of pesticides, and save production costs.
 

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Contents

REGULATING AGRICULTURAL BIOTECHNOLOGY INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW
3
AGRICULTURAL BIOTECHNOLOGY IN THE CONTEXT OF A REGULATED AGRICULTURAL SECTOR
18
ECONOMIC ANALYSIS AND REGULATING PESTICIDE BIOTECHNOLOGY AT THE US ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
21
COMPLIANCE COSTS FOR REGULATORY APPROVAL OF NEW BIOTECH CROPS
36
REGULATION OF TECHNOLOGY IN THE CONTEXT OF US AGRICULTURAL POLICY
59
MANAGING LIABILITIES ARISING FROM AGRICULTURAL BIOTECHNOLOGY
80
STATUS OF AGRICULTURAL BIOTECHNOLOGY AN INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE
103
INTERACTIONS BETWEEN TRADE POLICIES AND GM FOOD REGULATIONS
124
REGULATION AND THE STRUCTURE OF BIOTECHNOLOGY INDUSTRIES
420
THE SOCIAL WELFARE IMPLICATIONS OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY PROTECTION IMITATION AND GOING OFF PATENT
437
CASE STUDIES ON THE ECONOMICS OF REGULATING AGRICULTURAL BIOTECHNOLOGY
456
INTERNATIONAL APPROVAL AND LABELING REGULATIONS OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD IN MAJOR TRADING COUNTRIES
457
BENEFITS AND COSTS OF BIOSAFETY REGULATION IN INDIA AND CHINA
481
BIOSAFETY REGULATION OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORPHAN CROPS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES A WAY FORWARD
509
Bt RESISTANCE MANAGEMENT THE ECONOMICS OF REFUGES
535
MANAGING EUROPEAN CORN BORER RESISTANCE TO Bt CORN WITH DYNAMIC REFUGES
558

THE VALUE OF NONPECUNIARY CHARACTERISTICS OF CROP BIOTECHNOLOGIES A NEW LOOK AT THE EVIDENCE
145
Bt CORNS REDUCTION OF MYCOTOXINS REGULATORY DECISIONS AND PUBLIC OPINION
178
CONSUMER ATTITUDES AND MARKET RESISTANCE TO BIOTECH PRODUCTS
201
COMPARISON OF CONSUMER RESPONSES TO GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS IN ASIA NORTH AMERICA AND EUROPE
227
CONCEPTUAL ISSUES IN REGULATING AGRICULTURAL BIOTECHNOLOGY
241
THE ECONOMICS OF BIOTECHNOLOGY REGULATION
242
LABELING REGULATIONS AND SEGREGATION OF FIRST AND SECOND GENERATION GM PRODUCTS INNOVATION INCENTIVES AN...
263
REGULATION OF TECHNOLOGY IN THE CONTEXT OF RISK GENERATION
282
ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED CROPS DIFFERENTIATED RISK ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT
301
IRREVERSIBILITY UNCERTAINTY AND THE ADOPTION OF TRANSGENIC CROPS EXPERIENCES FROM APPLICATIONS TO HT SUGAR ...
327
ANTICOMPETITIVE IMPACTS OF LAWS THAT REGULATE COMMERCIAL USE OF AGRICULTURAL BIOTECHNOLOGIES IN THE UNIT...
353
REGULATION TRADE AND MARKET POWER AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL MARKETS AND INCENTIVES FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY
397
FARMER DEMAND FOR CORN ROOTWORM Bt CORN DO INSECT RESISTANCE MANAGEMENT GUIDELINES REALLY MATTER?
579
ADVERSE SELECTION MORAL HAZARD AND GROWER COMPLIANCE WITH Bt CORN REFUGE
598
DAMAGE FROM SECONDARY PESTS AND THE NEED FOR REFUGE IN CHINA
625
REGULATION OF BIOTECHNOLOGY FOR FIELD CROPS
638
REGULATION OF TRANSGENIC CROPS INTENDED FOR PHARMACEUTICAL AND INDUSTRIAL USES
647
REGULATION OF BIOTECHNOLOGY FOR FORESTRY PRODUCTS
662
REGULATION OF BIOTECHNOLOGY FOR SPECIALTY CROPS
683
WHAT HAVE WE LEARNED AND WHERE DO WE GO FROM HERE?
698
WHAT HAVE WE LEARNED AND WHERE DO WE GO FROM HERE?
701
INDEX
723
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About the author (2006)

Richard E. Just is Distinguished University Professor and former Chair, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, University of Maryland at College Park.

Julian M. Alston is Professor, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, University of California at Davis.

David Zilberman is Chair, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, University of California at Berkeley.