Relationships of Natural Enemies and Non-prey Foods

Front Cover
Springer Science & Business Media, Feb 26, 2009 - Science - 454 pages
Feeding on Non-Prey Resources by Natural Enemies Moshe Coll Reports on the consumption of non-prey food sources, particularly plant materials, by predators and parasitoids are common throughout the literature (reviewed recently by Naranjo and Gibson 1996, Coll 1998a, Coll and Guershon, 2002). Predators belonging to a variety of orders and families are known to feed on pollen and nectar, and adult parasitoids acquire nutrients from honeydew and floral and extrafloral nectar. A recent publication by Wäckers et al. (2005) discusses the p- visioning of plant resources to natural enemies from the perspective of the plant, exploring the evolutionary possibility that plants enhance their defenses by recru- ing enemies to food sources. The present volume, in contrast, presents primarily the enemies’ perspective, and as such is the first comprehensive review of the nut- tional importance of non-prey foods for insect predators and parasitoids. Although the ecological significance of feeding on non-prey foods has long been underappreciated, attempts have been made to manipulate nectar and pollen ava- ability in crop fields in order to enhance levels of biological pest control by natural enemies (van Emden, 1965; Hagen, 1986; Coll, 1998a). The importance of n- prey foods for the management of pest populations is also discussed in the book.
 

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Contents

The Functions of NonPrey Foods in the Diets of Entomophagous Species
1
11 The NonPrey Foods of Entomophagous Arthropods
2
12 The Functions Served by NonPrey Foods
3
121 Dispersal
4
122 Reproduction
5
123 Other Roles of NonPrey Foods in Natural Enemy Ecology
12
13 Closing the Introduction Opening the Rest of the Book
14
Glucophagy
17
1116 Water
191
1121 Seed Size
192
1122 Mechanical Defenses of the Seed
194
1124 Seed Covering
198
1125 Seed Chemistry
200
1126 Mucilaginous Secretions
207
113 Conclusions
209
SeedAssociated Food Bodies
210

I1 Interclass Differences in Sugar Sources
19
The Sugar Feeders
22
Acari
26
213 Heteroptera
27
Coccinellidae
28
Chrysopidae
30
Syrphidae
32
Formicidae
34
22 Parasitoids
37
222 Parasitoid Hymenoptera
39
23 Conclusions
42
Floral Nectar
45
32 Nutrition and Chemistry of Floral Nectar
46
33 Factors That Influence the Production and Nutrition of Nectar
48
34 The PlantProtective Benefits of Floral Nectar
52
35 Cost of Nectar Production
54
36 Defenses of Floral Nectar
55
362 Chemical Defenses of Floral Nectar
56
37 Conclusions
58
Extrafloral Nectar
60
42 Physiology and Nutritional Composition of EFN
62
43 Protective Benefits of EFNs
64
44 Temporal Occurrence of EFN
66
45 Regulation of EFN Production
68
46 Conclusion
71
Honeydew
73
52 Factors That Influence Honeydew Production
75
53 Honeydew in Mutualistic Interactions
76
532 Antinutrient Properties of Honeydew
79
55 Conclusion
83
Pollinivory
84
The Pollen Feeders
87
Acari
88
Carabidae
94
Coccinellidae
108
Chrysopidae
109
616 Heteroptera
110
Syrphidae
111
Formicidae
112
621 Diptera
113
622 Hymenoptera
114
63 Conclusions
115
Adaptations to Pollen feeding
117
72 Sensory Adaptations for Detecting Pollen
118
722 Chemical Cues
120
73 Morphological Adaptations
121
733 Internal Anatomy
122
74 Adaptations to Digesting the Nutrients of Pollen
123
742 Other Strategies for Digesting Pollen
124
75 Conclusion
126
Pollen Nutrition and Defense
127
811 Carbohydrates
130
813 Lipids
131
814 Vitamins
132
815 Inorganic Minerals
133
821 Floral Morphology
134
823 Antinutritive Qualities
136
824 Toxic Pollens
137
83 Conclusions
138
Granivory
141
The Seed Feeders
143
911 Adult Feeding Behavior
156
912 Granivory by Larvae
158
92 Formicidae
161
921 Harvester Ants
162
93 Gryllidae
164
94 Conclusions
165
Adaptations to Granivory
166
1011 Adaptations in Adult Granivores
168
1012 Adaptations in Larval Granivores
172
102 Seed Feeding Techniques
174
1022 Internalizing the Seed
175
1023 Digestive Enzymes
176
103 Seed Digestion in Harvester Ants
177
1032 ColonyLevel Digestion of Seeds
178
104 Conclusions
180
Seed Nutrition and Defense
183
111 Seed Nutrition
184
1111 Carbohydrates
186
1112 Proteins
187
1113 Lipids
188
1114 Minerals
189
1115 Vitamins
190
121 Diversity of Plants that Produce SeedAssociated Food Bodies
214
122 Physical Characteristics of Food Bodies
215
123 Chemical Composition of Food Bodies
216
124 Diplochory and Seed Cleaning
218
125 Ants
219
126 Other Entomophagous Insects
222
127 Ants as Dispersal Agents
224
1272 Escaping Seed Mortality
225
1273 Avoiding Competition
226
128 Invasive Species and Myrmecochorous Plants
227
129 Conclusions
228
Seed Preferences of Natural Enemies
229
132 Seed Traits Influencing Seed Selection
231
1322 External Features
234
1324 Nutrition
235
1326 Grass Versus Broadleaf Species
236
134 Conclusions
237
Fungi and Microorganisms
239
IV2 Symbioses
241
Mycophagy
242
1411 Water Content
244
1414 Lipids
245
1416 Defensive Properties of Fungi
246
142 When Mycophagy Benefits the Fungus
247
Acari
248
Coccinellidae
251
Staphylinidae
253
Chrysopidae
255
1437 Heteroptera
256
1439 Parasitoid Hymenoptera
257
144 Conclusions
258
Symbioses with Microorganisms
259
1512 Nectar and Yeasts
263
1513 Sooty Molds and Honeydew
264
152 Nutritional Symbionts of Entomophagous Species
265
1521 Physiological Adaptations to Symbioses in Insects
266
1522 Nutritional Functions of Microbial Symbioses
267
1523 Natural Enemies and Microorganism Associations
269
153 Conclusions
276
Applied Aspects of NonPrey Foods for Natural Enemies
277
NonPrey Foods and Biological Control of Arthropods
279
1612 Conservation Biological Control
282
162 Strategies for Incorporating NonPrey Foods into Cropland
284
1621 Land and FarmScape Diversity as a Source of NonPrey Foods
285
1622 Integrating Vegetational Diversity Within Fields
287
1623 Food Sprays
289
163 Complications with Utilizing NonPrey Foods in Pest Management
298
1631 Are NonPrey Foods a Sink for Biological Control?
299
1632 Caveats to Vegetational Diversity
303
1633 Troubles with Food Sprays
304
1634 Are Omnivorous Natural Enemies Pests?
305
164 Conclusion
306
PlantIncorporated Pest Resistance and Natural Enemies
308
171 Host Plant Resistance
310
1711 Nutritional Suitability of Resistant Plants to Natural Enemies
311
1712 Intraspecific Variation in Synomone Production
312
1713 Intraspecific Variation in NonPrey Food Production
314
172 Systemic Insecticides
315
1722 The Compatibility of Systemics and Natural Enemies
316
173 Insecticidal GM Crops
324
1732 Bitrophic Interactions of Natural Enemies and GM Crops
327
174 Conclusions
329
Biological Control of Weed Seeds in Agriculture Using Omnivorous Insects
333
181 Are Weed Seeds Limited?
336
1812 Are Weed Seeds Limited?
337
182 Does Disturbance Associated with Crop Production Preclude Biological Control of Weed Seeds?
338
183 Is Biological and Habitat Diversity on Farms Sufficient to Support Biological Control of Weed Seeds?
339
1832 Farm Practices that Promote Granivores
340
1833 Community Interactions Among Granivores
342
184 Do Granivores Respond Positively to Increasing Seed Densities?
343
185 Characteristics of a Good Weed Seed Biological Control Agent
345
186 Seed Burial
349
How Can Biological Control of Weed Seeds Be Promoted?
350
Conclusions and the Relative Quality of NonPrey Foods for Natural Enemies
352
192 Relative Conservation Benefits of Different NonPrey Foods
358
1922 Attributes of Alternative NonPrey Foods
359
193 Adaptations that Fuel Omnivory
361
194 Applied Aspects of Omnivory Complexity Within Multitrophic Interactions
363
195 Concluding Remarks
364
References
365
Taxonomic Index
435
Subject Index
449
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