Relationships of birds and spruce budworms: literature review and annotated bibliography
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acres 40 animal areas avian bay-breasted warblers behavior bird populations Bird predation bird species birds and spruce Black-headed budworm black-throated green warblers blackburnian blackburnian warblers blue-winged teal breeding birds Brunswick budworm pupae Cape Cape May warblers census chickadees Choristoneura clutch consumption Custer and Pitelka Dendroica digestion rates Digestive Tracts downy woodpeckers Ecol Ecology effects Entomol epidemic esophagus estimated factors feeding foliage foraging forest birds forest insects fumiferana functional response gizzard grosbeak habitat hairy woodpeckers Hammond's flycatcher hole-nesting Holling Identification II-C increased infestation insect pest insect populations insectivorous birds jack pine budworm Kendeigh lation Maine male nestling numerical response Ontario ovenbird parasites popu population densities predation predator-prey prey density prey species pupae sample sawfly sparrow spruce bud spruce budworm larvae spruce budworm outbreaks spruce budworm populations spruce-fir forests stability stands stomach contents Tennessee warbler territories thrush trees vertebrates Wildl Wilson Bull wood warblers worm yellow-rumped myrtle