# Reliability in Automotive and Mechanical Engineering: Determination of Component and System Reliability

Springer Science & Business Media, Apr 30, 2008 - Technology & Engineering - 500 pages

Defects generate a great economic problem for suppliers who are faced with increased duties. Customers expect increased efficiency and dependability of technical product of - also growing - complexity. The authors give an introduction to a theory of dependability for engineers. The book may serve as a reference book as well, enhancing the knowledge of the specialists and giving a lot of theoretical background and practical information, especially on the dependability analysis of whole systems.

The theory, concepts and approaches are well explained by examples and solutions. The topics include: Mathematical basis, Life span distributions, System dependability theory, Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA), Fault tree analysis, Dependability test planning, Test evaluation, Calculation of repairable systems, Dependability protection programs.

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### Contents

 Introduction 1 Fundamentals of Statistics and Probability Theory 7 21 Fundamentals in Statistics and Probability Theory 9 212 Statistical Values 28 213 Reliability Parameters 30 214 Definition of Probability 33 22 Lifetime Distributions for Reliability Description 35 221 Normal Distribution 36
 662 Regression Analysis 243 663 Maximum Likelihood Method 247 67 Exercises to Assessment of Lifetime Tests 251 Weibull Parameters for Specifically Selected Machine Components 255 71 Shape Parameter b 256 72 Characteristic Lifetime T 259 73 Failure Free Time t0 and Factor ftB 262 Methods for Reliability Test Planning 264

 222 Exponential Distribution 38 223 Weibull Distribution 40 224 Logarithmic Normal Distribution 55 225 Further Distributions 57 23 Calculation of System Reliability with the Boolean Theory 70 24 Exercises to Lifetime Distributions 76 25 Exercises to System Calculations 79 Reliability Analysis of a Transmission 84 31 System Analysis 86 312 Determination of System Elements 88 314 Determination of the Reliability Structure 89 32 Determination of the Reliability of System Elements 90 33 Calculation of the System Reliability 93 FMEA Failure Mode and Effects Analysis 98 41 Basic Principles and General Fundamentals of FMEA Methodology 100 42 FMEA according to VDA 86 Form FMEA 103 43 Example of a Design FMEA according to VDA 86 109 44 FMEA according to VDA 42 113 System Elements and System Structure 120 Functions and Function Structure 123 Failure Analysis 126 Risk Assessment 133 Optimization 140 45 Example of a System FMEA Product according to VDA 42 144 Functions and Function Structure of the Adapting Transmission 148 Failure Functions and Failure Function Structure of the Adapting Transmission 149 Optimization of the Adapting Transmission 151 46 Example of a System FMEA Process according to VDA 42 152 System Elements and System Structure for the Manufacturing Process of the Output Shaft 153 Functions and Function Structure for the Manufacturing Process of the Output Shaft 154 Failure Functions and Failure Function Structure for the Manufacturing Process of the Output Shaft 156 Fault Tree Analysis FTA 160 51 General Procedure of the FTA 161 512 Symbolism 162 52 Qualitative Fault Tree Analysis 163 522 Basic Procedure 164 523 Comparison between FMEA and FTA 166 53 Quantitative Fault Tree Analysis 168 533 Application to Systems 173 54 Reliability Graph 179 55 Examples 180 552 Fault Tree Analysis of a Radial Seal Ring 183 56 Exercise Problems to the Fault Tree Analysis 187 Assessment of Lifetime Tests and Failure Statistics 191 61 Planning Lifetime Tests 192 62 Order Statistics and their Distributions 194 63 Graphical Analysis of Failure Times 203 631 Determination of the Weibull Lines two parametric Weibull Distribution 204 632 Consideration of Confidence Intervals 207 633 Consideration of the Failure Free Time t0 three parametric Weibull Distribution 211 64 Assessment of Incomplete Censored Data 215 641 Censoring Type I and Type II 217 642 Multiple Censored Data 219 643 Sudden Death Test 220 65 Confidence Intervals for Low Summations 237 66 Analytical Methods for the Assessment of Reliability Tests 239 661 Method of Moments 240
 81 Test Planning Based on the Weibull Distribution 265 82 Test Planning Based on the Binomial Distribution 267 83 Lifetime Ratio 269 84 Generalization for Failures during a Test 273 85 Consideration of Prior Information BayesiansMethod 274 851 Procedure from BeyerLauster 275 852 Procedure from Kleyner et al 277 86 Accelerated Lifetime Tests 281 861 TimeAcceleration Factor 282 862 Step Stress Method 284 863 HALT Highly Accelerated Life Testing 285 864 Degradation Test 286 87 Exercise Problems to Reliability Test Planning 288 Lifetime Calculations for Machine Components 291 91 External Loads Tolerable Loads and Reliability 292 911 Static and Endurance Strength Design 293 912 Fatigue Strength and Operational Fatigue Strength 298 92 Load 302 921 Determination of Operational Load 303 922 Load Spectrums 307 93 Tolerable Load Wöhler Curves SNCurve 320 931 Stress and Strain Controlled Wöhler Curves 321 932 Determination of the Wöhler Curves 322 94 Lifetime Calculations 325 942 Two Parametric Damage Calculations 330 943 Nominal Stress Concept and Local Concept 332 95 Conclusion 334 Maintenance and Reliability 338 1011 Maintenance Methods 339 1012 Maintenance Levels 342 1014 Maintenance Capacities 343 1015 Maintenance Strategies 345 102 Life Cycle Costs 346 103 Reliability Parameters 350 1032 Maintenance Parameters 352 1033 Availability Parameters 356 104 Models for the Calculation of Repairable Systems 359 1041 Periodical Maintenance Model 360 1042 Markov Model 365 1043 BooleMarkov Model 374 1044 Common Renewal Processes 375 1045 Alternating Renewal Processes 380 1046 SemiMarkov Processes SMP 389 1047 System Transport Theory 391 1048 Comparison of the Calculation Models 395 105 Exercise Problems to Repairable Systems 397 1052 Calculation Problems 399 Reliability Assurance Program 403 112 Fundamentals of the Reliability Assurance Program 405 1122 Product Design 407 1123 Production and Operation 411 1124 Further Actions in the Product Design Cycle 412 Solutions 414 Appendix 473 Index 489 Copyright