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according action activity ancient authority become belief called cause Chap character Christian civilization claim conception concerning conclusion condition conduct conscience consequences considered consistent constituted dependence derived desire determine distinction divine doctrine duty elements entire essential established eternal Ethics evil existence expressed fact faculty feelings followed force frequently future give gods happiness heaven human idea implies individual influence intelligence judgment Kant kind knowledge London look means ment mind moral law moral obligation motive nature notion object obligation origin pain perfect person philosophy pleasure practical present prevailed principle punishment question race rational reach reason recognized reference relations religion religious representative respect reward rule sanction savage says sense social society soul Spencer spirit standard teaching theory things tion true truth universal utilitarian various virtue worship wrong
Sayfa 293 - has freedom to do all that he wills, provided he infringes not the equal freedom of any other...
Sayfa 121 - ... nee erit alia lex Romae, alia Athenis, alia nunc, alia posthac, sed et omnes gentes et omni tempore una lex et sempiterna et immutabilis continebit, unusque erit communis quasi magister et imperator omnium deus, ille legis huius inventor, disceptator, lator; cui qui non parebit, ipse se fugiet ac naturam hominis aspernatus hoc ipso luet maximas poenas, etiamsi cetera supplicia, quae putantur, effugerit" (Cicero, De re publica, III.xxii.33).
Sayfa 258 - As between his own happiness and that of others, utilitarianism requires him to be as strictly impartial as a disinterested and benevolent spectator. In the golden rule of Jesus of Nazareth, we read the complete spirit of the ethics of utility. To do as you would be done by and to love your neighbor as yourself constitute the ideal perfection of utilitarian morality.
Sayfa 263 - Those only are happy (I thought) who have their minds fixed on some object other than their own happiness ; on the happiness of others, on the improvement of mankind, even on some art or pursuit, followed not as a means, but as itself an ideal end.
Sayfa 265 - Few human creatures would consent to be changed into any of the lower animals, for a promise of the fullest allowance of a beast's pleasures ; no intelligent human being would consent to be a fool, no instructed person would be an ignoramus, no person of feeling and conscience would be selfish and base, even though they should be persuaded that the fool, the dunce, or the rascal is better satisfied with his lot than they are with theirs.
Sayfa 256 - If I am asked what I mean by difference of quality in pleasures, or what makes one pleasure more valuable than another, merely as a pleasure, except its being greater in amount, there is but one possible answer. Of two pleasures, if there be one to which all or almost all who have experience of both give a decided preference irrespective of any feeling of moral obligation to prefer it, that is the more desirable pleasure.
Sayfa 256 - It is quite compatible with the principle of utility to recognize the fact that some kinds of pleasure are more desirable and more valuable than others. It would be absurd that, while, in estimating all other things, quality is considered as well as quantity, the estimation of pleasures should be supposed to depend on quantity alone.
Sayfa 256 - But these supplementary explanations do not affect the theory of life on which this theory of morality is grounded — namely, that pleasure and freedom from pain are the only things desirable as ends...
Sayfa 269 - To have a right, then, is, I conceive, to have something which society ought to defend me in the possession of. If the objector goes on to ask why it ought, I can give him no other reason than general utility.
Sayfa 302 - He, like every other man, may properly consider himself as one of the myriad agencies through whom works the Unknown Cause ; and when the Unknown Cause produces in him a certain belief, he is thereby authorized to profess and act out that belief.