Reluctant Pioneers: China's Expansion Northward, 1644-1937
Reluctant Pioneers describes the migration of Chinese to Manchuria, their settlement there, and the incorporation of Manchuria into an expanding China, from the seventeenth to the twentieth centuries. The expansion of Chinese state and society from the agrarian and urban core of China proper to the territories north and west of the Great Wall doubled the size of the empire, forming the "China" now so prominent on the map of Asia. The movement and settlement of people, clearing and cultivation of land, invasions of soldiers, circulation of merchants, and establishment of government offices extended the boundaries of China at the same time that the American expansion westward and the Russian expansion eastward created the other great landed empires that dominated the twentieth century and persist today.
The chief purpose of this book is to describe the Chinese experience and what it tells us about the expansion of states and societies, drawing comparisons with Russia and America, and reflecting on the nature of what scholars since Frederick Jackson Turner have called "frontiers" and what Turner's critics now call "borderlands" or "middle ground." In addition, the book touches on several other issues central to our understanding of modern China, such as the development of the Chinese economy and the nature of Chinese migration.
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Introduction to Part One
The Manorial Experiment 16441740
From Manor to Market 17401850
The Advance of the Qing 18501911
Introduction to Part Two
Introduction to Part Three
Commerce and Trade 16441903
A Tale of Two Cities Newchwang and Dairen 190322
Agriculture Innovation and Development?
Glossary of Chinese Terms
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19th century agricultural areas bandits bannerlands bannermen banners and estates bean products Beijing Biggest owners capital cash Changchun China proper Chinese farmers Chinese migrants cited in Kong cities commercial common County crops cultivated land Dairen Diao Shuren 1993 economy empire established estate workers expansion exports farm farmland Fengtian frontier grain Hebei Heilongjiang Henry James 1888 household class Inner Mongolia Japanese Jean-Baptiste Du Halde Jilin and Heilongjiang junks Kong Jingwei 1990 Kotoku gannendo Kotoku surveys labor landowners Liao Liao River Liaodong Manchu Manchu and Mongol Manchuria and Inner manors merchants military Mongol Mongol banners moved Newchwang Ninguta north China Northeast northern Owen Lattimore owners Other owners peasants percent piculs population port provinces Qing Dynasty railroads reclaimed region and household rent River Russian settlement settlers Shandong shang Shengjing South Manchuria Railway southern Manchuria soybeans steppe Subprefecture Sungari tenants territories village Wall Walter Young Xiao zhuan
Page 4 - American development has exhibited not merely advance along a single line, but a return to primitive conditions on a continually advancing frontier line, and a new development in that area. American social development has been continually beginning over again on the frontier.