Reports of the Medical Officer of the Privy Council and Local Government Board [Great Britain]. 1873-74 suppl

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H.M. Stationery Office, 1874
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Page 9 - ... in Filth are such as apparently must be attributed to morbific ferments or contagia ; matters which not only are not gaseous, but on the contrary, so far as we know them, seem to have their essence, or an inseparable part of it, in certain solid elements which the microscope discovers in them : in living organisms, namely, which in their largest sizes are but very minute microscopical objects, and at their least sizes are probably unseen even with the microscope...
Page 223 - ... 6. As compared with the water-closet the earth-closet has these advantages : — It is cheaper in original cost ; it requires less repair ; it is not injured by frost ; it is not damaged by improper substances being thrown down it ; and it very greatly reduces the quantity of water required by each household.
Page 27 - Authority, cause the same to be disinfected or destroyed, as the case may require ; and if the said Master neglect to comply with such direction within a reasonable time, the Authority shall cause the same to be carried into execution. Art.
Page 27 - The medical officer of health shall, in the case of every ship certified to be infected, give directions, and take such steps as may appear to him to be necessary, for preventing the spread of...
Page 33 - In considering the admissibility of waterclosets, it has always to be remembered as to users ; that the working of an ordinary watercloset is easily deranged, and that water-closets, when out of order, and especially if in the interior of houses, are apt to become very dangerous nuisances. The ordinary water-closet is therefore a thoroughly ineligible form of privy for those who are unlikely to take proper care of it, or are from poverty unable to give it such occasional repairs as it may require.
Page 39 - Freshly burnt lime may be used in the same way, but is less effectual than charcoal. If neither charcoal nor lime be at hand, the filth should be covered with a layer, some inches thick, of clean dry earth.
Page 17 - There are houses, there are groups of houses, there are whole villages, there are considerable sections of towns, there are even entire and not small towns, where general slovenliness in everything which relates to the removal of...
Page 17 - ... receiving kitchen refuse and other filth. And with this state of things, be it on large or on small scale, two chief sorts of danger to life arise : one. that volatile effluvia from the refuse pollute the surrounding air and everything which it contains; the other, that the liquid parts of the refuse pass by soakage or leakage into the surrounding soil, to mingle there of course in whatever water the soil yields, and in certain cases thus to occasion the deadliest pollution of wells aud springs.
Page 28 - England shows itself so little contagious, in the sense in which small-pox and scarlatina are commonly called contagious, that, if reasonable care be taken where it is present, there is almost no risk that the disease will spread to persons who nurse and otherwise closely attend upon the sick.
Page 10 - The ferments, so far as we know them, show no power of active diffusion in dry air; diffusing in it only as they are passively wafted, and then probably, if the air be freely open, not carrying their vitality far; but, as moisture is their normal medium, currents of humid air (as from sewers and drains) can doubtless lift them in their full effectiveness, and if into houses or confined exterior spaces, then with their chief chances of remaining effective...

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