Research Methods in Community Medicine: Surveys, Epidemiological Research, Programme Evaluation, Clinical Trials
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Defining the variables
Planning the handling of data
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Abramson activities American Journal analysis answer applied appraisal asked assessment association bias British case-control studies cause changes Chapter characteristics clinical trials cluster coding collection compared comparison confounding controls criteria death decisions defined definition developing discussed disease effect Epidemiology estimate evaluation examination example experiment factors findings given groups hospital important indicate individuals International interviews Journal Journal of Epidemiology less mean measure Medical Medicine methods mortality myocardial infarction objectives observational obtained outcome participation patients performed persons planning population possible practice prevalence preventive primary problem procedures programme Public Health questionnaire questions random rates ratio reasons records reference reported responses risk sample scale selected showed simple smoking social sometimes specific standard statistical status subjects survey tion treatment usually validity variables