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acids air cooled Alaska ambient air ambient temperatures antifreeze Arctic Environmental Research automobile automotive ice fog back pressure Brazed calculated carbon monoxide Carryall 4x2 Chevrolet Nova coalescer cold combustion coolant cooled cooler-condenser cooler-condenser performance corrosion dew point diesel drive shaft effective engine evaluated exhaust gas exhaust system exhaust temperature exhaust water vapor fabricated Fairbanks flow fog control devices forced convection forming ice front fuel economy gases gasoline heat exchanger heat transfer coefficient hose ice film ice fog control Ice Fog Removal idle inlet inside film installed Jeep Jeep Wagoneer km/h l967 Mercedes Benz l968 Chevy Carryall l974 Chevy Nova l97l GMC Jimmy metal mi/h mist mounted muffler oil cooler outlet temperature Pass Stainless Steel plugged pollutants reduced road speed spiral wound flexhose square feet stainless steel cooler-condenser sulfur oxides surface area tail pipe thermal inversions tube cooler-condenser vehicle's visible ice fog water vapor condensed
Page ii - US Environmental Protection Agency, and approved for publication. Mention of trade names or commercial products does not constitute endorsement or recommendation for use.
Page iii - FOREWORD Effective regulatory and enforcement actions by the Environmental Protection Agency would be virtually impossible without sound scientific data on pollutants and their impact on environmental stability and human health. Responsibility for building this data base has been assigned to EPA's Office of Research and Development and its...
Page iii - Development and its l5 major field installations, one of which is the Corvallis Environmental Research Laboratory (CERL). The primary mission of the Corvallis Laboratory is research on the effects of environmental pollutants on terrestrial, freshwater, and marine ecosystems; the behavior, effects and control of pollutants in lake systems; and the development of predictive models on the movement of pollutants in the biosphere. This report...
Page iv - Automotive generated ice fog is a form of air pollution that results when exhaust water vapor freezes into minute particles which form a dense fog. This study on control techniques was conducted by the US Environmental Protection Agency at its Arctic Environmental Research Station near Fairbanks, Alaska. The major control technique evaluated was the cooling of exhaust gases to well below the dew point, thus condensing water vapor into a liquid stream before final discharge. During the winter of l974-75...
Page iv - The sizing criteria developed the first winter were found inadequate because ice film formation decreased heat transfer efficiency. Cooler-condensers must be designed to avoid or to accommodate condensate freezing. An ice fog mass emission reduction up to 80 percent was attained with cooler-condensers on motor vehicles. However, the increase in visibility over roads was not quite proportional because of the many other ice fog sources.
Page iv - ... or more of the ice fog. Control of automobile-generated ice fog would also mean cleaner air, but perhaps more ice on the road. Cleaner air would result because sulfur oxides and lead compounds would be absorbed in the condensate. This condensate, if allowed to drip from the cooler-condensers, would freeze onto the road and require a more intense snow removal effort.
Page iv - This study has shown that cooler-consensers are effective ice fog control devices for mobile sources. The next step is to further evaluate and demonstrate the devices on fleet vehicles used in the dense ice fog areas.