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SENTENCING PRACTICES AND
STRUCTURING SENTENCING DECISIONS
THE ROLE OF EXTRALEGAL FACTORS IN
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analysis approach arrest assumed bail blacks burglary charge Chiricos and Waldo choice Clarke and Koch coefficients consistently estimate context conviction at trial correlation counties crime criminal justice system defendant defendant's dependent variable determinants discretion discussion dismissal disparity disposition effect empirical example expected sentence extent of discrimination felony findings given conviction Gottfredson guilty pleas Hagan important imposed imprisonment incarcerated included increased indicators involved judges judicial jurisdictions LaFree latent variable latent variable model mandatory sentencing measure observable variables parole board percent plea bargaining plea negotiations prior record prison populations prison sentences prison terms probation problems prosecution prosecutor punishment reduced-form regression Review robbery role sample selection sanction type selection bias sentence length sentence outcomes sentence severity sentencing decisions sentencing law sentencing research social specific statistical structural equation structural equation models suggests Swigert and Farrell Table unobservable variation vector victim