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DISCRIMINATION IN THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE
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analysis approach arrest assumed bail blacks burglary charge Chiricos and Waldo choice Clarke and Koch coefficients consistently estimate context conviction at trial correlation counties crime criminal justice system defendant defendant's discretion discussion dismissal disparity disposition effect empirical example expected sentence extent of discrimination Farrell and Swigert felony findings given conviction Gottfredson guilty pleas Hagan important imposed imprisonment incarcerated included increased indicators involved judges judicial jurisdictions LaFree latent variable latent variable model Lizotte mandatory sentencing measure Minnesota Sentencing Guidelines observable variables parole board percent plea bargaining plea negotiations prior record prison populations prison sentences prison terms probation problems prosecution prosecutor reduced-form regression Review robbery role sample selection sanction type selection bias sentence length sentence outcomes sentencing decisions sentencing law sentencing research social specific statistical structural equation structural equation models suggests Swigert and Farrell Table unobservable variation vector victim