Resonances in the Earth-Ionosphere Cavity

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Springer Science & Business Media, Jul 31, 2002 - Mathematics - 380 pages
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This book on electromagnetic resonance phenomena describes a general approach to physical problems, ways to solve them, and properties of the solutions obtained. Attention is given to the discussion and interpretation of formal and experimental data and their links to global atmospheric conditions such as the dynamics of global thunderstorm activity, variations of the effective height of the lower ionosphere, etc.

Schumann resonance is related to worldwide thunderstorm activity, and simultaneously, to global properties of the lower ionosphere. Transverse resonance is predominantly a local phenomenon containing information on the local height and conductivity of the lower ionosphere and on nearby thunderstorm activity.

Transient events in ELF-VLF radio propagation are also treated. These are natural pulsed radio signals and/or abrupt changes of manmade VLF radio signals. The transients associated with cloud-to-ionosphere discharges (red sprites, blue jets, trolls) are discussed, and clarification of the underlying physical ideas and their practical applications to pioneer results achieved in the field recently are emphasised.

 

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Contents

1NTRODUCT1ON
1
12 Typical characteristics of lower ionosphere
4
BASIC FORMALISM
8
22 Potentials eigenfunctions and resonance frequencies of an ideal spherical cavity
10
23 Transverse resonance frequencies
18
24 Experimental data and more realistic models of the cavity
20
25 Resonator isotropic and inhomogeneous in height
26
26 Effective surface impedance of the gyrotropic ionosphere
27
513 Influence of the daynight interface and of the geomagnetic field
177
514 Impact of the geomagnetic field
182
52 StrattonChu integral equation
187
522 Disturbances of the surface impedance
191
523 Variations of the effective height
194
524 Results computed for the vertical electric dipole source
200
525 Results computed for the Wisconsin Test Facility antenna
202
526 Global nonuniformities
209

27 Dispersion equation for the magnetoactive and nonuniform ionosphere
31
28 Particular solutions for the nonuniform ionosphere models
34
282 Polar inhomogeneity
37
283 Combined nonuniformity
41
29 Line splitting by the geomagnetic field
42
291 Hedgehog model
43
292 Line splitting in the model of dipole geomagnetic field
45
210 Feasible modulation of resonance frequency
50
211 Concluding remarks
54
2112 NonHermitian operators
55
2113 Group theory methods
57
SURVEY OF NATURAL SOURCES OF ELECTROMAGNET1C RAD1AT1ON
59
312 Extended vertical stroke
72
313 Bent broken stroke
74
314 Staircase stroke
77
315 Additional remarks
82
316 Nearby fields and spider stroke
87
32 General parameters of global lightning
90
321 Distribution of lightning strokes in space and time
91
322 Typical models of lightning distributions used at ELF
96
323 General parameters of global lightning
98
ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS IN THE EARTHIONOSPHERE CAVITY
100
412 Zonal harmonic series representation
102
413 Models for propagation parameter
107
414 Accelerating the convergence
119
415 Diurnal variations
124
416 General properties of ELF spectra
130
417 Schumann resonance in the frequencydistance plane
136
42 D1STRIBUTED RANDOM SOURCES IN THE FREQUENCY DOMAIN
141
422 Power spectra of SR background signal
143
43 ELF FIELDS IN THE TIME DOMAIN
156
432 Compact time domain solution
158
433 Signal waveforms after filtering in the receiver
165
434 Model ELF signal as a superposition of pulses
167
435 Natural stabilization of the SR spectra
169
ELF RADIO PROPAGATION IN NONUNIFORM CAVITY
173
512 Method of sequential refining
176
EXPERIMENTAL SCHUMANN RESONANCE STUDIES
220
61 Selecting the site and equipment
222
612 Design of electric antenna
226
613 Design of magnetic antenna
233
62 Calibrating the antennas
235
623 Calibration of horizontal magnetic antenna
240
63 Regular Schumann resonance parameters
244
631 Monitoring the Schumann resonance parameters
253
633 Peak frequency of magnetic field component
256
634 Information deduced from the drifts of median peak frequencies
260
635 Alterations in the source position or ionosphere modifications?
263
636 Peak Schumann resonance amplitudes and global thunderstorm activity
269
64 Samples of disturbed Schumann resonance data
277
642 Underlying physical mechanism of variations
278
643 Example of experimental solar proton event data
282
65 Schumann resonance continuous spectra
286
652 Schumann resonance in the Pointing vector
288
653 Source motion as seen in the Poynting vector
289
654 Solving the inverse problem by using Schumann resonance background data
290
66 Global nature of the Schumann resonance phenomenon
293
662 Coherence measure of Schumann resonance background data
294
67 Attempts to detect the Schumann resonance line splitting
297
671 Measurements of vertical electric field component
300
672 Measurements of horizontal magnetic field
304
68 Transient events
310
682 Experimental detection of transverse resonance
315
69 RS analysis and Hurst exponent of ELF records
323
610 Unusual ELF signals
328
6102 Nonlinear interaction of Schumann resonance and short wave radio signals
331
6103 ELF fields produced by a rocket flare
334
6104 Magnetospheric sources
337
CONCLUSION
341
BIBLIOGRAPHY
344
SYMBOLS
364
INDEX
370
Copyright

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