Retaining Walls - Their Design and Construction
THE NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL RESEARCH Economic and Social Studies XIII RETAIL TRADING IN BRITAIN 1850-1950 THE NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL RESEARCH OFFICERS OF THE INSTITUTE PRESIDENT SIR JOHN WOODS, G. C. B., M. V. O. COUNCIL OF MANAGEMENT PROFESSOR G. C. ALLEN PROFESSOR R. G. D. ALLEN PROFESSOR A. K. CAIRNCROSS S. P. CHAMBERS SIR HENRY CLAY GEOFFREY CROWTHER PROFESSOR E. DEVONS NOEL F. HALL SIR ROBERT HALL PROFESSOR J. R. HICKS W. A. B. HOPKIN SIR DONALD MACDOUGALL H. C. B. MYNORS SIR JEREMY RAISMAN PROFESSOR LIONEL ROBBINS PROFESSOR E. A. G. ROBINSON RICHARD STONE SIR JOHN WOODS BARBARA WOOTTON EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE OF THE COUNCIL OF MANAGEMENT PROFESSOR G. C. ALLEN PROFESSOR R. G, D. ALLEN GEOFFREY CROWTHER W. A. B. HOPKIN SIR DONALD MACDOUGALL SIR JEREMY RAISMAN PROFESSOR LIONEL ROBBINS PROFESSOR E. A. G. ROBINSON SIR JOHN WOODS DIRECTOR W. A. B. HOPKIN SEC RET ART FEODORA STONE 2 DEAN TRENCH STREET, SMITH SQUARE LONDON, S. W. I The National Institute of Economic and Social Research is an independent, non profit-making body founded in 1938. It always has had as its aim the promotion of realistic research, particularly in the field of economics. It conducts research by its own research staff and in co-operation with the Universities and other academic bodies. The results of the work done under the Institutes auspices are published in several series, and a list of its publications up to the present time will be found at the end of this book. K iAIL TRADING IN BRITAIN 1850-1950 A study of trends in retailing with special reference to the development of Co-operative, multiple shop and department store methods of trading BY JAMES B. JEFFERYS CAMBRIDGE AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS 1954 CONTENTS List of Tables page viii List of Charts xiii List of Plates xiv Preface xv Chap. I The Transformation of the Distributive Trades, 1850-1914 i 1. The Distributive Trades in the Middle of the Nineteenth Century I 2. The Changes in the Economic and Social Background 6 3. The Shifts in the Channels of Distribution 9 4. Changes in the Structure and Organization of ReC lijag t 14 5. The Co-operative Societies 16 6. The Department Stores 18 7. The Multiple Shop Retailers 21 8. The Importance of Large-scale Retailing and the Factors Influencing its Growth 29 9. The Changes in the Techniques of Retailing 36 10. Conclusion 38 II The Distributive Trades, 1914-1939 the Success of Large-scale Retailing 40 1 . The Economic and Social Changes and the Distributive Trades 40 2. The Shifts in the Channels of Distribution 47 3. The Changes in the Structure and Characteristics of Retailing 49 4. The Development of Large-scale Retailing The Co-operative Societies 55 5. The Department Stores 59 6. The Multiple Shop Retailers 61 7. The Importance of Large-scale Retailing 72 8. Factors Influencing the Growth of Large-scale Retail ing 80 9. The Progress and Problems of the Co-operative Societies 83 i o. The Progress and Problems of the Department Stores 86 1 1 . The Progress and Problems of the Multiple Shop Retailers 88 12. The Small-Scale or Independent Retailers 91 13. Conclusion 94 14. The Cost of Distribution 98 VI CONTENTS Chap. Ill The Distributive Trades in the Second World War and the Post-War Years, 1939-1950 and Sugges tions as to Future Trends page 101 1. The War and Post-War Years 101 2. Future Trends in the Distributive Trades 109 3. Conclusion The Distributive Trades, 1850-1950, and the Future 1 18 IV The Development of Large-Scale Retailing in Dif ferent Trades, 1850-1950 Method of Presentation of the Data 1 2 1 V The Grocery and Provisions Trade 1 26 VI The Meat Trade 181 VII The Bread and Flour Confectionery Trade 210 VIII The Milk Trade 226 IX The Fruit and Vegetables and Fish Trades 244 X The Chocolate and Sugar Confectionery Trade 253 XI The Tobacco Trade 268 XII The Newspaper, Periodical and Magazine, Sta tionery and Book Trades 281 XIII The Clothing Trades 292 1. The Mens and Boys Clothing Trade 295 2...
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