Retinal Degenerations: Biology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics

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Joyce Tombran-Tink, Colin J. Barnstable
Springer Science & Business Media, Nov 6, 2007 - Medical - 466 pages
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For centuries, humans have tried to explain the complex process of vision and find effective treatments for eye diseases. Perhaps the oldest surviving record of ancient ophthalmic practices is the Babylonian code of Hammurabi that over 4000 years ago, mentioned fees for eye surgery—and penalties for unsuccessful operations that led to loss of the eye. Babylonian medicine was controlled by priests who directed the work of skilled surgeons. The earliest records of Egyptian medicine date from almost the same time. The Ebers Papyrus, dating back to more than 3500 years ago is a superbly preserved document in which a section outlines a relatively advanced system of diagnosis and treatment of various ocular pathologies. The text reveals that ancient Greek and Egyptian physicians prescribed “liver juice” for night blindness. This was obtained from roasted and crushed ox liver. We now know that their prescription contained a remarkable amount of vitamin A. It was only within the last century, however, that we have recognized the importance of vitamin A to the function of photoreceptors and visual acuity and that its deficiency can result in night blindness. Egyptian ophthalmological practices were held in high esteem in the ancient world and so were their medical institutes, called “peri-ankh,” which existed since the first dynasty. Herodotus, the fifth century BC Greek historian, comments on the specialization of the physicians: “Each physician treats just one disease.
 

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Contents

A Patients View
3
Epidemiology of AgeRelated Macular Degeneration
23
A Hereditary Childhood Form
61
Aging Changes and Novel Therapies
91
From Gene Discovery to Therapy
105
Retinal Degeneration in Usher Syndrome
137
Mouse Models of Retinitis Pigmentosa
149
The Impact of Diabetes on Neuronal Glial and Vascular Cells
165
Within the Retina
257
Synaptic Remodeling in Retinal Degeneration
269
On the Suppression of Phtoreceptor Cell Death
293
CellBased Therapies to Restrict the Progress
319
Current Status of IPE Transplantation
345
Recent Results in Retinal Transplantation Give Hope
365
Stem Cells and Retinal Transplantation
385
Application of Encapsulated Cell Technology
401

Statins and AgeRelated Maculopathy
185
The Role of Drusen in Macular Degeneration
197
and Relevance to Retinal Degeneration 213 Janet R Sparrow
213
Genetic Modifiers That Affect Phenotypic Expression
237
Effective Treatment for the Canine RPE65 Null Mutation
415
Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors as a Possible Therapy for RP17
455
Index
463
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