Return of the spirit: Tawfig al-Hakim's classic novel of the 1919 revolution : first complete English translation

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Three Continents Press, 1990 - Fiction - 288 pages
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Contents

Acknowledgmentsv
3
Volume One25
25
Chapter Two36
36
Copyright

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About the author (1990)

Tawfiq al-Hakim was the undisputed pioneer of dramatic writing in Arabic. Born in Alexandria, Egypt, he studied law in Paris and spent time with writers there. In 1928 he was appointed an attorney to the public prosecutor in the provinces of Egypt, and his experiences there inspired his novel The Maze of Justice. He resigned from government service and devoted himself completely to writing. Among his works widely read in Europe, particularly in France, are The Return of the Spring (1933) and The Tree Climber (1962), considered his masterwork. 020 Al-I Ahmad, Jalal Life Dates:1923-1969 Born in Tehran, Iran, in 1923, Jalal Al-i Ahmad is considered to be one of Iran's major modern prose writers, distinguished in both fiction and nonfiction. His first works of fiction began to appear in 1945. His seminal work, Mudir-i Madrasah (The School Principal) (1958) is social criticism as much as a novel-a blend that has led to many of Al-i Ahmad's works, especially his later ones, being banned. His political affiliations changed markedly during his life. The son of a Shi'ah cleric, he eventually came to have a strong belief in Islamic government and the importance of Shi'ah Islam in Iranian life, but earlier in his life he was active in the Tudeh (Communist) party and a strong supporter of Muhammad Musaddiq. Unquestionably, though, he was a nationalist with a strong dislike of Western culture and its pervasive intrusion in Iran. These feelings are particularly evident in his best-known nonfiction work in both Iran and the West, Gharbzadigi (Struck by the West). Originally published in serialized form in 1962, only a part appeared before it was banned. The first uncensored edition was published in 1978. Yet Al-i Ahmad was not solely an angry voice. Cynicism and disillusionment mingled with humor is part of his prose. His last novel, Nafrin-i Zamin (Cursing of the Land), was published in 1968 shortly before he died of a heart attack.

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