Robotic Grasping and Fine Manipulation
When a person picks up a metal part and clamps it in the chuck of a lathe, he begins with his arm, proceeds with his wrist and finishes with his fingers. The arm brings the part near the chuck. The wrist positions the part, giving it the proper orientation to slide in. After the part is inserted, the wrist and fingers make tiny corrections to ensure that it is correctly seated. Today's robot attempting the same operations is at a grave disadvantage if it has to make all motions with the arm. The following work investigates the use of robotic wrists and hands to help industrial robots perform the fine motions needed in a metal working cell. Chapters 1 and 2 are an introduction to the field and a review of previous investigations on related subjects. Little work has been done on grasping and fine manipulation with a robot hand or wrist, but the related subjects of robot arm dynamics and control have an extensive literature.
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A[Jb Acceptable wrist deflection analysis assembly tasks axis becomes bending coefficient of friction computed constraints contact area contact forces contact point contact with friction contour coordinate system curvature curved fingertip cylinder deformation degrees of freedom determine direction displacement vector displacements distributed control system elastic equations errors example Figure finger joints finger stiffnesses flexible forces and torques geometry grasping force grinder grinding gripper gripping force gross motions hole human hand industrial robots jacobian Kalman filter kinematic kinematic chains lm,n loads manufacturing tasks mechanical misalignment muscles object surface Pacinian corpuscles point contact position and orientation predictor radius of curvature rectangle reflexes resistance to slipping respect restoring forces result robot arm servo shear strength shear stress small motions soft finger soft fingertip spheres stability stiffness matrix task controller tool torque tracking trajectory translations and rotations transmitted vector velocity workpiece wrist controller