Roman Wives, Roman Widows: The Appearance of New Women and the Pauline Communities

Front Cover
Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2003 - History - 236 pages
In Roman law you were what you wore. This legal principle became highly significant because, beginning in the first century A.D., a "new" kind of woman emerged across the Roman empire - a woman whose provocative dress and sometimes promiscuous lifestyle contrasted starkly with the decorum of the traditional married woman. What a woman chose to wear came to identify her as either "new" or "modest." Augustus legislated against the "new" woman. Philosophical schools encouraged their followers to avoid embracing her way of life. And, as this fascinating book demonstrates for the first time, the presence of the "new" woman was also felt in the early church, where Christian wives and widows were exhorted to emulate neither her dress code nor her conduct. Using his extensive knowledge both of the Graeco-Roman world and of the New Testament writings, Bruce Winter shows how changing social mores among women impacted the Pauline communities. This helps to explain the controversial texts on marriage veils in 1 Corinthians, instructions in 1 Timothy regarding dress code and the activities of young widows, and exhortations in Titus for older women to call new wives "back to their senses" regarding their marriage and family responsibilities. Based on a close investigation of neglected literary and archaeological evidence, Roman Wives, Roman Widows makes groundbreaking contributions to our understanding of first-century women, including their participation in public life as lawyers, magistrates, and political figures, which in turn affected women's ministry in the Pauline communities.
 

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Roman wives, Roman widows: the appearance of 'new' women and the Pauline communities

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The Roman "new woman" who emerged in the Late Republic was unlike the modest domestic female of previous generations. She was bold and provocative in dress and demeanor, she pursued social liaisons ... Read full review

Contents

Pearls
105
Godliness and Good Works
108
15a
109
Avoiding Childbearing
110
1112
112
Submissiveness or Teaching
113
Speaking and Teaching
115
To Have Authority or Dominate?
116

PART I
15
The Appearance of New Wives
17
Wives and the Portrayal of Affectionate Husbands
18
Wives and Unfaithful Husbands
19
II New Roman Women
21
Contemporary Writers
23
The Promotion of Promiscuity by Poets
24
Catullus c 8454 BC
25
Ovid 43 BCAD 17
27
Playwrights and New Roman Comedy
30
III Roman Social Values in the East
32
Roman Women
34
IV Conclusions
37
New Wives and New Legislation
39
I Augustus Marriage Legislation of 17 BC
40
II Reactions to Augustus Legislation
47
Equestrians Revolt
48
Horace on the lex Julia
49
Legal Inequality
50
Julia and lex Julia
51
III The Subsequent Response of Augustus
52
IV Amendments to the Legislation in AD 9
54
V Conclusions
56
New Wives and Philosophical Responses
59
I Cardinal Virtues and New Roman Wives
60
II Women Studying Philosophy
63
Justice
64
III Headstrong and Arrogant Women
65
IV Educating Daughters
66
V Single and Married Men and Sexual Indulgence
68
VI Pythagorean Woman to Woman
72
VII Conclusion
74
PART II
75
The Appearance of Unveiled Wives in 1 Corinthians 11216
77
I The Significance of the Veil in Marriage
78
II The Significance of the Removal of the Veil in Public
81
III Modest and Immodest Appearances in Roman Law
83
IV Official Policing of Dress Codes on Religious Occasions
85
V What Was Proper in Roman Corinth?
91
VI Appearing to Be Contentious
94
Deciphering the Married Womans Appearance 1 Timothy 2915
97
911
98
Respectable Apparel
99
9015
101
Adornment
103
Hairstyles
104
IV Conclusions
119
The Appearance of Young Widows 1 Timothy 51115
123
I The Widows and the Christian Community
124
II Inappropriate Behaviour by Young Widows
128
III To Marry and Have Children
137
The Appearance of Young Wives Titus 235
141
The Coming of Roman Culture
144
II Cultural Conditioning and Cretan Christianity
145
Instructors v Elders
146
Cretans and Cretanizing
149
III Drunkenness among Older Married Women
152
IV Recalling Young Married Women to Their Responsibilities
154
Wakeup Calls
155
Lovers of Husbands and Children
159
Household Management
160
Debauchery among Older Children
163
The Behaviour of Husbands
164
Traditional and Christian Values
165
V Conclusions
167
PART III
171
The Appearance of Women in the Public Sphere
173
I Women in Commerce
174
II Women in the Courts
176
III Women in Politics
180
Woman Civic Patrons Magistrates and Gymnasiarch in the East
181
Junta Theodora the Federal Patron in Corinth
183
Junia Theodoras Benefactions
185
Junia Theodoras Official Honours
186
Junia Theodora and the Request of the Lycian Federation
187
The Limits of Participation
191
IV Women in politeia and Women in the Church
193
Junia Theodora and Phoebe Patron and Deacon
194
Junta Theodora and Junia
200
V Conclusions
204
Women in Civic Affairs
205
2 A Letter from the Lycian City of Myra to Corinth
206
4 A Letter of the Federal Assembly to Corinth Introducing a Second Decree in Favour of Iunia Theodora
208
5 A Decree of the Lycian City of Telmessos
209
Claudia Metrodora from Chios
210
3 Claudia Metrodora from Ephesos
211
Bibliography
212
Index of Subjects
224
Index of Modern Authors
228
Index of Scripture and Other Ancient Sources
231
Copyright

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