Sacred Ecology: Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Resource Management
Dr Berkes approaches traditional ecological knowledge as a knowledge-practice-belief complex. This complex considers four interrelated levels: local knowledge (species specific); resource management systems (integrating local knowledge with practice); social institutions (rules and codes of behavior); and world view (religion, ethics, and broadly defined belief systems). Divided into three parts that deal with concepts, practice, and issues, respectively, the book first discusses the emergence of the field, its intellectual roots and global significance. Substantive material is then included on how traditional ecological and management systems actually work. At the same time it explores a diversity of relationships that different groups have developed with their environment, using extensive case studies from research conducted with the Cree Indians of James Bay, in the eastern subarctic of North America. The final section examines traditional knowledge as a challenge to the positivist-reductionist paradigm in Western science, and concludes with a discussion of the potential of traditional ecological knowledge to inject a measure of ethics into the science of ecology and resource management.
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Context of Traditional Ecological Knowledge
Emergence of the Field
1ntellectual Roots of Traditional Ecological
Cree Worldview from the 1nside
A Story of Caribou and Social Learning
Cree Fishing Practices as Adaptive Management
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1Berkes 1ndian 1nuit 1see box 1see chapter aboriginal Adaptive Management animals beaver belief Berkes biodiversity biological black bear Caribbean caribou catch Centre for 1ndigenous charcoal Chief Seattle Chisasibi Chisasibi Cree cisco coastal concept conservation ethic Cree fishery cultural cycles depletion ecologists ecosystem elders environment ethnobiology ethnoscience example fish George River gill nets harvesting herd human ecology Hunn hunting important indigenous groups indigenous knowledge islands James Bay Cree Johannes Kayapo knowledge and management knowledge systems lagoon lake land mangrove Maori maps mesh sizes myth native nature northern Pacific plants population practices productive property rights relationships resource management systems respect rules sawyers scientists sea egg sea moss season shaman shifting cultivation social society Source species subarctic sustainable territories traditional ecological knowledge traditional knowledge traditional systems trapper trees tropical forest Tukano Tzeltal Western science whitefish worldview