# Scale Development: Theory and Applications

SAGE, 2003 - Mathematics - 171 pages

A best-seller in its First Edition, Scale Development: Theory and Applications, Second Edition has been extensively updated and revised to address changes in the field and topics that have grown in importance since the First Edition. Widely adopted for graduate courses in departments such as Psychology, Public Health, Marketing, Nursing, and Education, this book will prove beneficial to applied researchers across the social sciences. New to the Second Edition are figures and practical tips for students, a new section on face validity (Chapter 4), a substantially expanded presentation of factor analysis (Chapter 6), a new chapter (7) on item response theory (IRT), coverage of qualitative procedures, and issues related to differential item functioning (Chapter 8).

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### Contents

 Overview 1 General Perspectives on Measurement 2 Historical Origins of Measurement in Social Science 3 Later Developments in Measurement 5 The Role of Measurement in the Social Sciences 6 Summary and Preview 13 Understanding the Latent Variable 14 Latent Variable as the Presumed Cause of Item Values 15
 Administer Items to a Development Sample 88 Evaluate Scale Length 90 Optimize the Items 96 Exercises 100 Factor Analysis 102 An Overview of Factor Analysis 103 A Conceptual Description of Factor Analysis 108 Interpreting Factors 126

 Path Diagrams 16 Further Elaboration of the Measurement Model 20 Parallel Tests 21 Alternative Models 24 Exercises 26 Reliability 27 Reliability Based on Correlations Between Scale Scores 39 Generalizability Theory 44 Summary 47 Validity 49 CriterionRelated Validity 50 Construct Validity 53 What About Face Validity 57 Exercises 58 Guidelines in Scale Development 60 Generate an Item Pool 63 Determine the Format for Measurement 70 Have the Initial Item Pool Reviewed by Experts 85 Consider Inclusion of Validation Items 87
 Principal Components Versus Common Factors 127 Confirmatory Factor Analysis 131 Using Factor Analysis in Scale Development 133 Sample Size 136 Conclusion 137 An Overview of Item Response Theory 138 Item Difficulty 139 Item Discrimination 142 Item Characteristic Curves 144 Complexities of IRT 147 When to Use IRT 149 Conclusions 152 Measurement in the Broader Research Context 154 After Scale Administration 158 Final Thoughts 160 References 161 Index 167 About the Author 171 Copyright