Scanning Electron Microscopy: Physics of Image Formation and Microanalysis
Scanning Electron Microscopy provides a description of the physics of electron-probe formation and of electron-specimen interactions. The different imaging and analytical modes using secondary and backscattered electrons, electron-beam-induced currents, X-ray and Auger electrons, electron channelling effects, and cathodoluminescence are discussed to evaluate specific contrasts and to obtain quantitative information.
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absorption amplitude aperture atomic number Auger electron backscattered electrons backscattering backscattering coefficient biased Bloch waves Bloch-wave Bragg calculated carriers cathode cathodoluminescence charge cross-section crystal curve decrease deflection density dependence diameter diaphragm diffraction diffusion discussed in Sect EBIC EBSP elastic electron beam electron energy Electron Microscopy electron range electron-probe current element emission emitted energy loss equation Everhart-Thornley detector example excited exit field film fluorescence foil function grid incident electron increasing inside intensity ionization ionization energy irradiation keV electrons Kossel lattice lens lines LVSEM maximum measured method micrographs Microscopy mode Monte Carlo simulations nanometres normal observed optical p-n junction particles pattern Phys plane polepiece potential primary electron pulse quantitative ratio recombination recorded resolution Scanning scattering scintillator secondary electrons semiconductor semiconductor detector shows signal solid angle specimen spectrometer substrate surface surface normal take-off angles thickness tilt angle trajectories values wave width x-ray