Scarcity and Frontiers: How Economies Have Developed Through Natural Resource Exploitation
Throughout much of history, a critical driving force behind global economic development has been the response of society to the scarcity of key natural resources. Increasing scarcity raises the cost of exploiting existing natural resources and creates incentives in all economies to innovate and conserve more of these resources. However, economies have also responded to increasing scarcity by obtaining and developing more of these resources. Since the agricultural transition over 12,000 years ago, this exploitation of new 'frontiers' has often proved to be a pivotal human response to natural resource scarcity. This book provides a fascinating account of the contribution that natural resource exploitation has made to economic development in key eras of world history. This not only fills an important gap in the literature on economic history but also shows how we can draw lessons from these past epochs for attaining sustainable economic development in the world today.
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2 The Agricultural Transition from 10000 BC to 3000 BC
3 The Rise of Cities from 3000 BC to 1000 AD
4 The Emergence of the World Economy from 1000 to 1500
5 Global Frontiers and the Rise of Western Europe from 1500 to 1914
6 The Atlantic Economy Triangular Trade from 1500 to 1860
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abundant Africa Age of Dislocation agricultural agricultural land Agricultural Transition arable land areas Asia Australia Barbier Black Death Brazil capital Chapter China climate colonial commodities countries cropland crops decline developing economies domestic East economic development economic growth Economic History empires endowments energy Engerman environmental European example exports factor farming forest fossil fuel frontier expansion frontier land expansion frontier-based development Global Frontiers Golden Age immigration important increased India industrial innovations investment Islamic labor land and natural Latin America manufacturing McNeill Meinig migration million mineral natural resources nomads nomic North North America pattern periphery plantation policies population primary products raw materials regions Resource Curse resource exploitation resource-based development rise rural sector settlement Silk Roads slaves South Southeast Asia southern strategy Table technologies tion transport triangular trade tropical United University Press urban wealth Western Europe Williamson World Bank world economy Younger Dryas Yuan Dynasty