Schools of Sympathy: Gender and Identification Through the Novel
McGill-Queen's Press - MQUP, 1997 - Literary Criticism - 179 pages
Roberts argues that Clarissa's, Hester's, Isabel's, and Tess's "heroism" or "greatness" is measured not by her actions but by the extent to which others are moved by her. Therefore, the character cannot be studied without studying the response she generates, which, in these novels, is sympathy. Roberts asserts that each of the novels can be understood as a school of sympathy, through which we learn to behave and feel as gendered subjects, and that our response to the heroine is as carefully crafted as the character herself. Schools of Sympathy addresses issues of masochism, female victimization, the power of passive seduction, and the possibilities of heroism. As a counterpoint to these eighteenth- and nineteenth-century male perspectives, Roberts examines works by Margaret Atwood and Angela Carter that explicitly address these issues.
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Angel Angela Carter appear argues asked attempt beauty becomes Belford Bloody Chamber chapter characters Chillingworth claims Clarissa constructed critics culture d'Urbervilles difference Dimmesdale Discipline and Punish display emotion empathy erotic experience extent eyes feel female desire feminine feminism feminist Fevvers fiction Foucault gaze gender guilt Handmaid's Tale Hawthorne Hawthorne's heart Henry James hero heroine heroine's Hester Prynne hurt identification identity imagine Irigaray Isabel Archer judge Judith Butler Lady liminal look Lovelace Lovelace's male Margaret Atwood masculine masochism masochistic mother move narrative narrator narrator's never novel object Offred pain passive pity pleasure Portrait position punishment question Ralph reader relationship rescue response Richard Poirier role Rousseau Scarlet Letter scene Schools of Sympathy seduction seek seems sense sexual spectacle spectators story suffering tell Teresa de Lauretis Tess Tess's theatricality tion Touchett trial victim voice Walser woman women words writes