Science, Values, and Objectivity

Front Cover
Peter Machamer, Gereon Wolters
University of Pittsburgh Pre, 2004 - Science - 317 pages

Few people, if any, still argue that science in all its aspects is a value-free endeavor. At the very least, values affect decisions about the choice of research problems to investigate and the uses to which the results of research are applied. But what about the actual doing of science?

As Science, Values, and Objectivity reveals, the connections and interactions between values and science are quite complex. The essays in this volume identify the crucial values that play a role in science, distinguish some of the criteria that can be used for value identification, and elaborate the conditions for warranting certain values as necessary or central to the very activity of scientific research.

Recently, social constructivists have taken the presence of values within the scientific model to question the basis of objectivity. However, the contributors to Science, Values, and Objectivity recognize that such acknowledgment of the role of values does not negate the fact that objects exist in the world. Objects have the power to constrain our actions and thoughts, though the norms for these thoughts lie in the public, social world.

Values may be decried or defended, praised or blamed, but in a world that strives for a modicum of reason, values, too, must be reasoned. Critical assessment of the values that play a role in scientific research is as much a part of doing good science as interpreting data.

 

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Contents

Introduction Science Values and Objectivity
1
1 The Epistemic the Cognitive and the Social
14
2 Is There a Significant Distinction between Cognitive and Social Values?
24
3 Epistemic and Nonepistemic Values in Science
52
4 The Social in the Epistemic
78
5 Transcending the Discourse of Social Influences
90
6 Between Science and Values
112
7 How Values Can Be Good for Science
127
10 A Case Study in Objectifying Values in Science
190
11 Border Skirmishes between Science and Policy Autonomy Responsibility and Values
220
12 The Prescribed and Proscribed Values in Science Policy
245
13 Bioethics Its Foundation and Application in Political Decision Making
256
14 Knowledge and Control On the Bearing of Epistemic Values in Applied Science
275
15 Law and Science
294
Index
311
Back Cover
318

8 Social Objectivity and the Objectivity of Value
143
9 On the Objectivity of Facts Beliefs and Values
172

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About the author (2004)

Peter Machamer is a professor in the Department of History and Philosophy of Science and Associate Director of the Center for Philosophy of Science at the University of Pittsburgh.

Gereon Wolters is a professor of philosophy and Deputy Director of the Center for Philosophy of Science at the University of Konstanz.

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