Scientific Management and Labor

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D. Appleton, 1915 - Efficiency, Industrial - 302 pages
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Page 132 - ... the gathering up of all this scattered craft knowledge, systematizing it and concentrating it in the hands of the employer and then doling it out again only in the form of minute instructions, giving to each worker only the knowledge needed for the mechanical performance of a particular relatively minute task. This process it is evident separates skill and knowledge even in their narrow relationship. When it is completed the worker is no longer a craftsman in any sense, but is an animated tool...
Page 34 - Scientific Management and Labor Welfare. — Scientific management, through its accurate scientific methods, and the laws which it has discovered and established, its improvement of organization and equipment, and its democratic spirit: Sets each workman to the highest task for which his physical and intellectual capacity fits him, and tends to prevent the degradation and displacement of skilled labor.
Page 89 - It analyzes the operations of industry into their natural parts, makes careful studies of fatigue and sets the task on the basis of a large number of performances by men of different capacities and with due and scientific allowance for the human factor and legitimate delays.
Page 56 - Naturally, therefore, the time study men were found to be prevailingly of the narrow-minded mechanical type, poorly paid and occupying the lowest positions in the managerial organization, if they could be said to belong at all to the managerial group.
Page 54 - This being true, the time study man is, from the viewpoint of labor, the central figure in scientific management — its vital organ and force. To perform his functions properly, to make scientific management tolerable to labor, he must be a man exceptional in technical and industrial training, a man with a broad and sympathetic understanding of the workers as well as of the economic and social forces which condition their welfare, a man of unimpeachable judgment, governed by scientific rather than...
Page 120 - ... assumed that if it is solved with reference to this problem it must also be solved with due regard to labor's well-being and its just demands. This seems to have been the characteristic attitude of scientific management from the beginning. Labor was simply looked upon as one of the factors entering into production, like machinery, tools, stores, and other elements of equipment. The problem was simply how to secure an efficient coordination and functioning of these elements. It was only after...
Page 106 - ... common interests, and to weaken the solidarity of those which exist. Almost everything points to the strengthening of the individualistic motive and the weakening of group solidarity. Each worker is bent on the attainment of his individual task. He can not combine with his fellows to determine how much that task shall be. If the individual slows down he merely lessens his wages and prejudices his standing without helping his neighbor. If he can beat the other fellow, he helps himself without...
Page 114 - A second chief source of danger and evil to labor in the application of scientific management is that it offers its wares in the open market, but it has developed no means by which it can control the use of these by the purchaser. In large part the practical departure of scientific management from its ideals is the result of special managerial or proprietorial aims and impatience of delay in their fulfillment. The expert is frequently called in because the establishment is in financial or industrial...
Page 137 - The first point is that scientific management, at its best and adequately applied, exemplifies one of the advanced stages of the industrial revolution which began with the invention and introduction of machinery. Because of its youth and the necessary application of its principles to a competitive state of industry, it is, in many respects, crude, many of its devices are contradictory of its announced principles, and it is inadequately scientific. Nevertheless, it is to date the latest word in the...
Page 55 - The best men In this work are perhaps technically qualified, but so far as the observation of your investigator has gone the best of them are technicians with little knowledge of the subject of fatigue, little understanding of psychology and temperament, little understanding of the viewpoint and problems of the workers, and almost altogether lackIng in knowledge of and interest in the broader economic and social aspects of working-class welfare.

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