Scientific Management and the Engineering Situation. Sidney Ball Memorial Lecture Delivered Before the University of Oxford, 28 October 1922

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H. Milford, Oxford University Press, 1922 - Industrial efficiency - 28 pages
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Page 16 - When, on the other hand, they receive much more than a 60 per cent increase in wages, many of them will work irregularly and tend to become more or less shiftless, extravagant, and dissipated. Our experiments showed, in other words, that it does not do for most men to get rich too fast.
Page 22 - That the master manufacturer, by dividing the work to be executed into different processes, each requiring different degrees of skill or of force, can purchase exactly that precise quantity of both which is necessary for each process...
Page 15 - ... work, it is necessary to pay about 30 per cent, more than the average. For ordinary day labor requiring little brains or special skill, but calling for strength, severe bodily exertion, and fatigue, it is necessary to pay from 50 per cent, to 60 per cent, above the average. For work requiring especial skill or brains, coupled with close application, but without severe bodily exertion, such as the more difficult and delicate machinist's work, from 70 per cent, to 80 per cent, beyond the average....
Page 22 - It is, in fact, the constant aim and tendency of every improvement in machinery to supersede human labour altogether, or to diminish its cost, by substituting the industry of women and children for that of men ; or that of ordinary labourers, for trained artisans.
Page 19 - The managers assume, for instance, the burden of gathering together all of the traditional knowledge which in the past has been possessed by the workmen...
Page 22 - On the contrary, wherever a process requires peculiar dexterity and steadiness of hand, it is withdrawn as soon as possible from the cunning workman, who is prone to irregularities of many kinds, and it is placed in charge of a peculiar mechanism, so selfregulating, that a child may superintend it.
Page 22 - By the infirmity of human nature it happens, that the more skilful the workman, the more self-willed and intractable he is apt to become, and, of course, the less fit a component of a mechanical system, in which, by occasional irregularities, he may do great damage to the whole.
Page 20 - The full possibilities of functional foremanshlp, however, will not have been realized until almost all of the machines in the shop are run by men who are of smaller caliber and attainments and who are, therefore, cheaper than those required under the old system.
Page 19 - Thus, all of the planning which under the old system was done by the workman, as a result of his personal experience, must of necessity under the new system be done by the management in accordance with the laws of the science...
Page 15 - The writer has found, for example, after making many mistakes above and below the proper mark, that to get the maximum output for ordinary shop work requiring neither especial brains, "very close application, skill, nor extra hard work, such, .for instance, as the more ordinary kinds of routing machine shop work, it is necessary to pay about 30 per cent, more than the average.

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